Protein expression analysis of a high-demeclocycline producing strain of Streptomyces aureofaciens and the roles of CtcH and CtcJ in demeclocycline biosynthesis
© The Author(s) 2016
Received: 3 June 2016
Accepted: 15 September 2016
Published: 22 September 2016
Streptomyces aureofaciens strain A6-9, obtained with traditional mutagenesis, produces elevated levels of 6-DCT. The increased formation of 6-DCT may be attributable to the changes in the expression of some proteins in the 6-DCT biosynthetic pathway. For this reason, we explored the differences in protein expression between A6-9 and wild-type (WT) strains of Streptomyces aureofaciens, and based on the differences (CtcH and CtcJ were overexpressed in A6-9), investigated the roles of CtcH and CtcJ in biosynthesis.
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and a Mascot search indicated that some enzymes (including CtcH and CtcJ) involved in the primary and secondary metabolism were more strongly expressed in the high-6-DCT-yielding strain A6-9 than in the WT strain DT1. To examine the roles of CtcH and CtcJ in 6-DCT biosynthesis, ctcH-deleted, ctcJ-deleted, ctcH-overexpressing, and ctcJ-overexpressing mutants and a mutant overexpressing both ctcH and ctcJ were constructed. Compared with WT, 6-DCT production was 50 and 37 % higher in the ctcH-overexpressing and ctcJ-overexpressing strains, respectively, and increased by 60 % in the ctcH–ctcJ-overexpressing strain. The ctcH-deleted and ctcJ-deleted strains produced almost no 6-DCT. Analysis of the metabolic flux distribution indicated that ctcH encodes a hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and ctcJ encodes a monooxygenase that are essential for 6-DCT biosynthesis.
Protein expression differs between high-6-DCT-yielding and WT strains, and the enzymes increased in the high-6-DCT-yielding strain explain the increased 6-DCT production. ctcH encodes a hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and ctcJ encodes a monooxygenase that are essential for 6-DCT biosynthesis.
KeywordsBiosynthesis Demeclocycline Streptomyces aureofaciens Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
Four tetracycline antibiotics, chlortetracycline, tetracycline, demeclocycline (6-DCT), and 6-demethyltetracycline, are secondary metabolites of Streptomyces aureofaciens (Zhu et al. 2001). 6-DCT is produced when the 6-methylation step is blocked in chlortetracycline biosynthesis pathway, and is used for the industrial production of semisynthetic tetracyclines (Nakano et al. 2000). There has been a little research into 6-DCT production, whereas many papers are available concerning the gene clusters and ribosomes involved in the biosynthesis of chlortetracycline and other tetracyclines. Chlortetracycline production depends on the expression of proteins involved in its biosynthetic pathway, so identifying and understanding the corresponding proteins are required for the industrial production of 6-DCT biosynthesis (Mikulik et al. 1983; Li et al. 2001). Streptomyces aureofaciens strain A6-9, obtained with the traditional mutagenesis, produces the elevated levels of 6-DCT. This increased formation of 6-DCT may be attributable to changes in the expression of some proteins in the 6-DCT biosynthetic pathway. Modulating the expression of these proteins may significantly affect 6-DCT biosynthesis.
In this study, we examined the differences in protein expression between A6-9 and the parental wild-type (WT) strain to identify the enzymes that are important for 6-DCT biosynthesis, using two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Based on the results, the roles of CtcH (hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) and CtcJ (monooxygenase) in 6-DCT biosynthesis were examined by inactivating or overexpressing them individually and together in DT1.
Microbial strains and plasmids
Strains and plasmids used in this study
Strains or plasmids
Genotype and/or relevant characteristics
Source or reference
Host for general
Donor strain for conjugation between E. coli and Streptomyces
producer of S. aureofaciens
Industrial 6-DCT-producing strain
6-DCT high-yield strains mutated from DT1
The deletion mutant of ctcH derived from DT1
The deletion mutant of ctcJ derived from DT1
ctcH gene-duplicated derivative of DT1, with genotype PermE*-ctcH gene
ctcJ gene-duplicated derivative of DT1, with genotype PermE*-ctcJ gene
ctcH and ctcJ gene-duplicated derivative of DT1, with genotype PermE*-ctcH-ctcJ gene
Non-replicating vector, Apms
attφC31, oriT, Apms, PermE*
pOJ260 derivative carrying a 1145 bp DNA fragment containing the neo gene, Kans, Apms
pOJ260-neo containing a 959 bp upstream fragment and a 889 bp downstream fragment of ctcH, Kans, Apms
pOJ260-neo containing a 911 bp upstream fragment and a 1021 bp downstream fragment of ctcJ, Kans, Apms
pIB139 derivative carrying a 719 bp DNA fragment containing the ctcH gene
pIB139 derivative carrying a 763 bp DNA fragment containing the ctcJ gene
pIB139 derivative carrying a 763 bp and a 719 bp DNA fragments containing the ctcJ and ctcH gene
Media and culture conditions
Escherichia coli DH5α and its derivatives were routinely grown aerobically in LB medium (37 °C, 180 rpm) (Jian et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2006). ISP4-containing 80 mmol l−1 MgCl2 was used for E.coli ET12567/pUZ8002-Streptomyces conjugative medium (Liu et al. 2015).
The mycelia of S. aureofaciens were stored in 20 % glycerol solution at −80 °C. A 250-ml shaker flask containing 30 ml of seed medium was inoculated with 3 ml of mycelial solution. After incubation for 48 h at 27 °C, a 250-ml fermentation flask containing 30 ml of fermentation medium was inoculated with 3 ml of seed medium, and shaken at 27 °C and 240 rpm for 148 h. All experiments were performed in triplicate. The seed medium and fermentation medium were adjusted to pH 6.5.
Generation of gene-inactivated and gene-overexpressing strains
Genes ctcH and ctcJ were deleted with the non-replicating plasmid pOJ260-neo, which produced deletion mutants substituted with a kanamycin-resistance gene cassette. The transformants (ΔctcH and ΔctcJ) were grown on ISP4 plates-containing kanamycin and nalidixic acid, selected on MS plates-containing kanamycin and apramycin, and verified with DNA sequencing and PCR. All primers used in this study are shown in Additional file 1: Online Resource 1 and the plasmid used for the gene-overexpressing constructs is shown in Additional file 2: Online Resource 2.
Genes ctcH and ctcJ were overexpressed individually or both genes were overexpressed simultaneously with an integrative plasmid, pIB139, containing a strong promoter from the erythromycin-resistance gene and the ϕC31 attp site, which can integrate into the attB site of Streptomyces. A 719-bp DNA fragment containing ctcH was cloned and inserted into pIB139 to generate pIB139-H, and a 763-bp DNA fragment containing ctcJ was inserted into pIB139 to generate pIB139-J. The two fragments were inserted into pIB139 to generate pIB139-H-J. The genotypes of WT and the overexpressing mutants are shown in Fig. 5a. The transformants (ctcH+, ctcJ+, and ctcH–ctcJ+) were isolated on ISP4 plates under apramycin and nalidixic acid selection, cloned on MS plates, and verified with PCR and a transcription analysis.
Determination of 6-DCT
The production of 6-DCT was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using the linear regression equation: U = 3 × 10−4 A − 10.98, r 2 = 0.9956, where U and A represent the concentration of 6-DCT and the peak area, respectively. Samples (1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 µl) of a standard 6-DCT solution (4000 µg/ml) were injected and eluted after 15 min, and the peak areas were calculated. The linear regression equation was obtained and plotted, with the concentration of 6-DCT on the horizontal axis and the peak area on the vertical axis. As a control, WT DT1 was processed under the same fermentation conditions.
After fermentation for 7 days, the pH of the culture broth was adjusted to 1.8–2.0 with oxalic acid. The filtration supernatant was assayed with HPLC using an Extend-C18 reverse phase column (4.6 mm × 150 mm, 5 μm; Agilent, USA) at 350 nm with 0.01-M oxalic acid–0.08-M ammonium oxalate solution and 40 % methanol/acetonitrile/water as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min. The column temperature was at 25 °C.
2D gel electrophoresis and Mascot search
The mycoproteins were extracted with ultrasonication and their concentrations determined with Coomassie Brilliant Blue. The mycelia were washed in low-salt buffer (2.5 mM KH2PO4, 5 mM NaH2PO4) precooled to 4 °C, and then resuspended in 1 ml of lysis buffer (8 M carbamide, 1 % IPG buffer, 2 % dithiothreitol). Protein sample preparation and 2D gel electrophoresis were performed as previously described (Helmel et al. 2014; Jan et al. 2014). (All chemicals were from Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). A Mascot search was performed by Shanghai Bo-Yuan Biological Technology Co., Ltd.
RNA isolation and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR)
The transcription levels of ctcH and ctcJ were assayed with RT-qPCR (Bio-Rad CFX96). Sample preparation, RNA isolation, and the PCR were all conducted according to a previous study (Zhu et al. 2013). RT-qPCR was performed with the SYBR Green Two-Step RT-qPCR SuperMix (Takara). The transcription levels were normalized to the expression of 16S rRNA. RT-qPCR was performed in three independent experiments, each in triplicate.
Differences in protein expression by S. aureofaciens strains A6-9 and DT1
A high-6-DCT-yield S. aureofaciens strain A6-9 was generated with the traditional mutagenesis. Compared with the parental strain under the same flask fermentation conditions, A6-9 showed a 20 % increase in 6-DCT production, which might be attributable to changes in protein expression. For this reason, 2D gel electrophoresis and a Mascot search were used to explore the differences in protein expression between the mutant A6-9 and the parental strain DT1.
Appraisal results of protein points by mass spectrometry (MS)
Protein ratio grayscale of A6-9 and DT1
The name of the protein
Malic dehydrogenase (MDH)
ATP synthase containing α-subunit
6-DCT biosynthesis requires CtcH and CtcJ
The proteins expressed more strongly in A6-9, according to 2D gel electrophoresis and the Mascot search, might explain, at least in part, the increase in 6-DCT production. CtcH and CtcJ are encoded by ctcH and ctcJ, respectively, which belong to the chlortetracycline biosynthesis gene cluster, and occur near one another on the S. aureofaciens chromosome, but have not yet been investigated. Therefore, their roles in 6-DCT biosynthesis were examined first, and the other enzymes upregulated in A6-9 will be explored in a future study. ctcH and ctcJ were knocked out individually to study their effects on 6-DCT biosynthesis.
Overexpression of ctcH- and/or ctcJ-enhanced 6-DCT production
In recent years, engineering the primary metabolism has been used to supply more precursors for the production of the secondary metabolites of Streptomyces and rationally engineering the secondary metabolism has shown potential utility in strain improvement, allowing the production of high levels of antibiotics and to reduce the byproducts (Pang et al. 2015; Zhuo et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2008). Gene overexpression has been an effective way to enhance antibiotic production (Liu et al. 2015; Du et al. 2013; Yuan et al. 2011; Malla et al. 2010). In this study, the overexpression of some key enzymes involved in the 6-DCT biosynthetic pathway in the high-yield strain A6-9 explained the enhanced production of 6-DCT.
ctcH is an endogenous gene that encodes a 3-hydroxylacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an NADH-dependent enzyme that also has Δ3-cis, Δ2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase and (S)/(R)-epimerase activities. It is responsible for the oxidation of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA, generating NADH, H+, and β-ketoacyl-CoA, which can also generate acetyl-CoA when it is catalyzed by thiolase during the β-oxidation of fatty acids (Fig. 2) (Volodina and Steinbuchel 2014; Fujita et al. 2007; Kunau et al. 1995; Black and DiRusso 1994; Pramanik et al. 1979). Here, the results of modulating ctcH can be explained by the requirement for NADH, H+, and acetyl-CoA in 6-DCT biosynthesis. First, the regulation of ctcH expression has a direct effect on the generation of NADH and H+, which are the major reductants in the 6-DCT biosynthetic pathway, and second, it affects the amount of acetyl-CoA, a major source of the precursors of 6-DCT.
In ΔctcH, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA could not be oxidized to a keto group, so the mutation of ctcH reduced the generation of NADH, H+, and acetyl-CoA, further reducing 6-DCT production. One cycle of β-oxidation produces one molecule each of NADH, H+, and acetyl-CoA, which are necessary for the 6-DCT biosynthesis (Fig. 2). However, in ctcH+ and ctcH–ctcJ+, the reaction catalyzed by 3-hydroxylacyl-CoA dehydrogenase was enhanced, increasing the amounts of NADH, H+, and acetyl-CoA, and thus increasing 6-DCT production.
ctcJ encodes a monooxygenase involved in antibiotic biosynthesis, and is also involved in the monooxygenation of intermediates in the macrolide biosynthetic pathways (Gaisser et al. 2002). These oxygenases belong to the so-called post-PKS-modifying (tailoring) enzymes, which play crucial roles in the formation of interesting and unique molecular structures. The monooxygenases are representative, tailoring enzymes that are especially important in providing the structural elements essential for the special biological activity of these structures (Taguchi et al. 2011; Faust et al. 2000).
In ΔctcJ, no 6-DCT was formed, and instead, an unknown chemical was produced that was also produced in DT1. These results indicate that ΔctcJ is unable to catalyze the oxidation steps (Fig. 1) required in the 6-DCT biosynthetic pathway. In ctcJ+ and ctcH–ctcJ+, the oxidation steps involving CtcJ in the 6-DCT biosynthesis pathway were enhanced.
This study mainly focused on the differences in protein expression between S. aureofaciens strains A6-9 and DT1 and the effects of CtcH and CtcJ on the production of 6-DCT in S. aureofaciens. Our experiments demonstrate that CtcH and CtcJ play important roles in the formation of 6-DCT. Further exploration of all the enzymes overexpressed in A6-9 will allow us to clarify the 6-DCT biosynthetic pathway. Our findings should be useful in controlling this metabolic node and modifying the metabolic pathway to increase the production of 6-DCT in an industrial strain.
All authors have participated in the interpretation of results during preparation of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This work was financially supported by Topfond Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Henan, China.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Al-Shamma KJ, Karim KH, Al-Genno GM (1983) Biological effects of inhaled welding fumes from flux-coated electrodes (OK 46.00). Dev Toxicol Environ Sci 11:487–490Google Scholar
- Bentley SD, Chater KF, Cerdeno-Tarraga AM, Challis GL, Thomson NR (2002) Complete genome sequence of the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Nature 417:141–147View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Black PN, DiRusso CC (1994) Molecular and biochemical analyses of fatty acid transport, metabolism, and gene regulation in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta 1210:123–145View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- DiRusso CC, Nystrom T (1998) The fats of Escherichia coli during infancy and old age: regulation by global regulators, alarmones and lipid intermediates. Mol Microbiol 27:1–8View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Du D, Zhu Y, Wei J, Tian Y, Niu G (2013) Improvement of gougerotin and nikkomycin production by engineering their biosynthetic gene clusters. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:6383–6396View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Faust B, Hoffmeister D, Weitnauer G, Westrich L, Haag S (2000) Two new tailoring enzymes, a glycosyltransferase and an oxygenase, involved in biosynthesis of the angucycline antibiotic urdamycin A in Streptomyces fradiae Tu2717. Microbiology 146:147–154View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fujita Y, Matsuoka H, Hirooka K (2007) Regulation of fatty acid metabolism in bacteria. Mol Microbiol 66:829–839View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gaisser S, Lill R, Staunton J, Mendez C, Salas J (2002) Parallel pathways for oxidation of 14-membered polyketide macrolactones in Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Mol Microbiol 44:771–781View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Helmel M, Posch A, Herwig C, Allmaier G, Marchetti-Deschmann M (2014) Proteome profiling illustrated by a large-scale fed-batch fermentation of Penicillium chrysogenum. EuPA 4:113–120Google Scholar
- Hensel M, Deckers-Hebestreit G, Altendorf K (1991) Purification and characterization of the F1 portion of the ATP synthase (F1Fo) of Streptomyces lividans. Eur J Biochem 202:1313–1319View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jan K, Renata N, Eric M, Lubomira F (2014) Intriguing properties of the angucyclineantibiotic auricin and complex regulation of its biosynthesis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:45–60View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jian J, Zhang SQ, Shi ZY, Wang W, Chen GQ (2010) Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Escherichia coli mutants with defected mixed acid fermentation pathways. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 87:2247–2256View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kunau WH, Dommes V, Schulz H (1995) Beta-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria, peroxisomes, and bacteria: a century of continued progress. Prog Lipid Res 34:267–342View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li XM, Novotna J, Vohradsky J, Weiser J (2001) Major proteins related to chlortetracycline biosynthesis in a Streptomyces aureofaciens production strain studied by quantitative proteomics. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 57:717–724View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu F, Xu D, Zhang Y, Zhu Y, Ye J (2015) Identification of BagI as a positive transcriptional regulator of bagremycin biosynthesis in engineered Streptomyces sp. Tu 4128. Microbiol Res 173:18–24View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lu YJ, Rock CO (2006) Transcriptional regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol Microbiol 59:551–566View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Malla S, Niraula NP, Liou K, Sohng JK (2010) Self-resistance mechanism in Streptomyces peucetius: overexpression of drrA, drrB and drrC for doxorubicin enhancement. Microbiol Res 165:259–267View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mikulik K, Jiranova K, Janda I, Weiser J (1983) Susceptibility of ribosomes of the tetracycline-producing strain of Streptomyces aureofaciens to tetracyclines. FEBS Lett 152:125–130View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakano T, Miyake K, Ikeda M, Mizukami T, Katsumata R (2000) Mechanism of the incidental production of a melanin-like pigment during 6-demethylchlortetracycline production in Streptomyces aureofaciens. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1400–1404View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pang AP, Du L, Lin CY, Qiao J, Zhao GR (2015) Co-overexpression of lmbW and metK led to increased lincomycin A production and decreased by product lincomycin B content in an industrial strain of Streptomyces lincolnensis. J Appl Microbiol 119:1064–1074View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pramanik A, Pawar S, Antonian E, Schulz H (1979) Five different enzymatic activities are associated with the multienzyme complex of fatty acid oxidation from Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 137:469–473Google Scholar
- Rock CO, Cronan JE (1996) Escherichia coli as a model for the regulation of dissociable (type II) fatty acid biosynthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta 1302:1–16View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schujman GE, Paoletti L, Grossman AD, Mendoza D (2003) FapR, a bacterial transcription factor involved in global regulation of membrane lipid biosynthesis. Dev Cell 4:663–672View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Taguchi T, Okamoto S, Hasegawa K, Ichinose K (2011) Epoxyquinone formation catalyzed by a two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase involved in biosynthesis of the antibiotic actinorhodin. ChemBioChem 12:2767–2773View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Volodina E, Steinbuchel A (2014) (S)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (FadB’) from fatty acid degradation operon of Ralstonia eutropha H16. AMB Express 4:69View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yuan T, Yin C, Zhu C, Zhu B, Hu Y (2011) Improvement of antibiotic productivity by knock-out of dauW in Streptomyces coeruleobidus. Microbiol Res 166:539–547View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang Y, Li Y, Du C, Liu M, Cao Z (2006) Inactivation of aldehyde dehydrogenase: a key factor for engineering 1,3-propanediol production by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Metab Eng 8:578–586View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang X, Fen M, Shi X, Bai L, Zhou P (2008) Overexpression of yeast S-adenosylmethionine synthetase metK in Streptomyces actuosus leads to increased production of nosiheptide. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 78:991–995View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhu J, Snow DD, Cassada DA, Monson SJ, Spalding RF (2001) Analysis of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and chlortetracycline in water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 928:177–186View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhu YX, Xu DK, Liao SY, Ye J, Zhang HZ (2013) Cloning and characterization of bagB and bagC, two co-transcribed genes involved in bagremycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces sp Tu 4128. Ann Microbiol 63:167–172View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhuo Y, Zhang W, Chen D, Gao H, Tao J (2010) Reverse biological engineering of hrdB to enhance the production of avermectins in an industrial strain of Streptomyces avermitilis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:11250–11254View ArticleGoogle Scholar