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Table 3 Isotherm models used for the study of the biosorption of Cu2+ on Oxalic acid modified and raw Saccharum officinarum biomas

From: Bioremediation of Cu(II) contaminated water by Saccharum officinarum: effect of oxalic acid modification on equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters

Isotherm name Isotherm model Parameters
Langmuir \(Q_{e} = \frac{{Q_{{{\text{max}}}} bC_{e} }}{{1 + bC_{e} }}\) Q max and b
Freudlinch \(Q_{e} = K_{F} C^{1/n}\) KF and n
Temkin \(Q_{e} = \frac{RT}{{B_{T} }}\ln (A_{T} C_{e} )\)  
Dubinin–Radushkevich \(Q_{e} = Q_{s} Exp\left( { - \frac{{\left( {RT\ln \left( {1 + \frac{1}{{C_{e} }}} \right)} \right)}}{{2E^{2} }}^{2} } \right)\) Q s and E
Redlich–Peterson \(Q_{e} = \frac{{Q_{o} C_{e} }}{{(1 + K_{R} C_{e}^{g} )}}\) Q o , K R and g
Sip \(Q_{e} = \frac{{Q_{s} (K_{s} C_{e} )^{{\beta_{s} }} }}{{(1 + (K_{s} C_{e} )^{{\beta_{s} }} )}}\) Q s, K s and β s
Hill \(Q_{e} = \frac{{Q_{H} C_{e}^{{n_{H} }} }}{{(K_{H} + C_{e}^{{n_{H} }} )}}\) Q H , K H and n H
Toth \(Q_{e} = \frac{{Q_{T} C_{e} }}{{(K_{T} + C_{e} )^{1/t} }}\) Q T, K T and t
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