Skip to main content

Table 1 Bioproducts produced by microbiological transformation of crude glycerol

From: Conversion of residues and by-products from the biodiesel industry into value-added products

Product Microorganism Initial glycerol Yield References
Biosurfactants Bacillus sp. 2 % (v/v) (Sousa et al. 2012)
Polyhydroxybutyrate Mixed microbial consortia 10 % (v/v) (Dobroth et al. 2011)
1,3-Propanediol Klebsiella pneumoniae 10 % (v/v) 0.41 mol/mol (Rossi et al. 2012)
Docosahexaenoic acid Schizochytrium limacinum 90 g/L 1.74 g/L (Ethier et al. 2011)
Ethanol Enterobacter aerogenes 80 mM 0.96 mol/mol (Ito et al. 2005)
Oxalic acid Aspergillus niger NRRL
Aspergillus niger LFMB
60 g/L
60 g/L
0.55 g/g
0.61 g/g
(André et al. 2010)
Animal feed Rhizopus microsporus 75 % 0.83 g/g (Nitayavardhana and Khanal 2011)
Docosahexaenoic acid Schizochytrium limacinum 75–100 g/L 4.91 g/L (Chi et al. 2007)
1,3-Propanediol P. agglomerans, C. freundii 60 g/L
20 g/L
0.56 g/g
0.68 g/g
(Casali et al. 2012)
Poly 3-hydroxybutyrate bioethanol Escherichia coli 30 g/L 0.8 g
30.2 %
(Shah et al. 2014)
1,3-Propanodiol (1,3-PD) C. butyricum 80 g/L 2.75 g/L/h (Szymanowska-Powałowska and Leja 2014)
Lipids Chlorella protothecoides 30.55 wt% 2.07 g/L/h (Feng et al. 2014)
Polyhydroxyalkanoates Mixed microbial cultures 30 mg/L 0.27 g/L/d (Moita et al. 2014)
p-Hydroxybenzoate Pseudomonas putida S12 18.4 g/L 6.0 g/L (Verhoef et al. 2014)
l-Glutamate
l-Lysine
l-Ornithine
l-Arginine
Putrescine
Corynebacterium glutamicum 20 g/L 0.026 g/g
0.08 g/g
0.12 g/g
0.03 g/g
0.03 g/g
(Meiswinkel et al. 2013)
Dihydroxyacetone Gluconobacter frateurii 15 g/L 125.8 g/L (Liu et al. 2013b)
Free fatty acids Escherichia coli 10 g/L 231 mg/g (Lee et al. 2014)
1,3-Propanediol Lactobacillus diolivorans 10 g/L 0.36 g/L/h (Pflügl et al. 2014)
Biomass Yarrowia lipolytica 25 g/L 12.3 g/L (Juszczyk et al. 2013)
1,3-Propanediol Mixed microbial consortia 7 g/L 0.65 mol/mol g (Liu et al. 2013a)
1,3-Propanediol Citrobacter freundii 176 g/L 66.3 g/L (Metsoviti et al. 2013)
Fumaric acid Rhizopus arrhizus 80 g/L 4.37 g/L (Zhou et al. 2014)
n-Butanol Clostridium pasteurianum 10 g/L 0.35 g/g (Khanna et al. 2013)
Organic acids
Trehalose
Propionibacterium freudenreichii 20 g/L 0.42 g/g
0.90 mg/g
(Ruhal and Choudhury 2012)
Lipids Rhodotorula glutinis 30 g/L 5.40 g/L (Yen et al. 2012)