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Table 5 Treatments applied to wastewater from biodiesel washing process

From: Conversion of residues and by-products from the biodiesel industry into value-added products

Pretreatment Treatment Initial COD (g/L) COD removal (%) Initial G&O (g/L) G&O removal (%) References
Dilution Anaerobic process 14.8 100 15.1 98 (Suehara et al. 2005)
Acidification Anaerobic process 56.4 99 3.3 84 (Phukingngam et al. 2011)
Acidification and electrocoagulation Dissolved air flotation 150 90 15 90 (Rattanapan et al. 2011)
Electrocoagulation 30 55 6 97 (Chavalparit and Ongwandee 2009)
Acid protonation Chemical coagulation 312 99.6 4.2 97 (Ngamlerdpokin et al. 2011)
Acid protonation Electrocoagulation 312 97.5 4.2 98.2 (Ngamlerdpokin et al. 2011)
Acidification, electrocoagulation Anaerobic process 300 100 (Siles et al. 2010)
Acid protonation Electrochemical coagulation 588 100 22 100 (Jaruwat et al. 2010)
Electrospun polystyrene membrane 445 75 (Shirazi et al. 2013)
Acidification Chitosan flakes adsorption 0.015, 0.71–0.73, 0.12 90 0.68–1.19 67 (Pitakpoolsil and Hunsom 2013)
Acidification Chitosan flakes adsorption 0.021, 0.24–31, 0.3 97.6 0.680–1.130 95.8 (Pitakpoolsil and Hunsom 2014)