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Fig. 1 | Bioresources and Bioprocessing

Fig. 1

From: Investigation of spiral-wound membrane modules for the cross-flow nanofiltration of fermentation broth obtained from a pilot plant fermentation reactor for the continuous production of lactic acid

Fig. 1

The measured permeate flow velocity for each membrane at different levels of applied pump head. a Permeate flow velocity of deionized water, b of media, and c of the LA contained in the media. The system curves are represented as dotted lines, the membranes are represented as follows: black fill: DL73, square; NF45, rhombus; DK73, circle; NP30, triangle; white fill: TW30, square; SW30, rhombus; NF90, circle. The figure allows for the comparison of the optimal operation window amongst the membranes. A high permeate flow velocity (far right) at a low pump head (near the x-axis) are desired. For example, in a the membrane DL73 has a three-fold better permeate flow velocity at a pump head of 100 m than the membrane NP30

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