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Table 2 Ion concentration of the microfiltered fermentation broth and the ion rejection of the membranes at 30 bar (NP30 at 25 bar)

From: Investigation of spiral-wound membrane modules for the cross-flow nanofiltration of fermentation broth obtained from a pilot plant fermentation reactor for the continuous production of lactic acid

Ions [–] Concentration (ppm) Rejection (%)
DK73 DL73 NP30 NF45 TW30 SW30
Mg2+ 23 89 96 76 90 44 75
Ca2+ 88 78 89 71 89 23 63
K+ 357 16 11 66 49 41 69
Na+ 18,220 18 3 65 49 43 69
NH4 + 111 29 27 76 39 46 70
Cl 112 −4 9 55 −25 25 39
SO4 2− 153 71 64 65 88 26 61
PO4 3− 11 74 55 56 100 −82 26