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Table 1 Bioactive components in different industrial food waste residues

From: Food waste: a potential bioresource for extraction of nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds

S. no. Source Residue Bioactive components References
Fruits
1.  Apple Peel and pomace Epicatechin, catechins, anthocyanins, quercitin glycosides, chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamates, phloretin glycosides, procyanidins Wolfe and Liu (2003), Foo and Lu (1999), Lu and Foo (1997)
2.  Avocado Peel and seeds Epicatechin, catechin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, cyanidin 3-glucoside, homogentisic acid Deng et al. (2012)
3.  Banana Peel Gallocatechin, anthocyanins, delphindin, cyaniding, catecholamine Someya et al. (2002), Kanazawa and Sakakibara (2000), González-Montelongo et al. (2010)
4.  Citrus fruits Peel Hesperidin, naringin, eriocitrin, narirutin Coll et al. (1998)
5.  Grapes Seed and skin Coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, neochlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, proanthocyanidins, quercetin 3-o-gluuronide, quercetin, resvaratrol Shrikhande (2000), Negro et al. (2003), Maier et al. (2009)
6.  Guava Skin and seeds Catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol Deng et al. (2012)
7.  Litchi Pericarp, seeds Cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutonoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, gallic acid, epicatechin-3-gallate Lee and Wicker (1991), Duan et al. (2007)
8.  Mango Kernel Gallic acid, ellagic acid, gallates,
gallotannins, condensed tannins
Arogba (2000), Puravankara et al. (2000)
9.  Palm By-products of palm oil milling Tocopherols, tocotrienols, sterols, and squalene, phenolic antioxidants Tan et al. (2007), Choo et al. (1996)
10.  Pomegranate Peel and pericarp Gallic acid, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-diglucoside, delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside Noda et al. (2002), Gil et al. (2000)
Vegetables
11.  Carrot Peel Phenols, beta-carotene Chantaro et al. (2008)
12.  Cucumber Peel Chlorophyll, pheophytin, phellandrene, caryophyllene Zeyada et al. (2008)
13.  Potato Peel Gallicacid, caffeic acid vanillic acid Zeyada et al. (2008)
14.  Tomato Skin and pomace Carotenoids Strati and Oreopoulou (2011)
Cereal crops
15.  Barley Bran β-Glucan Sainvitu et al. (2012)
16.  Rice bran γ-Oryzanol, bran oil Perretti et al. (2003), Oliveira et al. (2012)
17.  Wheat Bran and germs Phenolic acids, antioxidants Wang et al. (2008)
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