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Table 3 Comparative evaluation of different extraction techniques for extraction of bioactive compounds

From: Food waste: a potential bioresource for extraction of nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds

S. no. Bioactive component Sources Method Extraction solvent used Optimum conditions Yield References
1. Alkaloid (sanguinarine) Macleaya cordata Maceration Hydrochloric acid 100 °C/30 min 16.87a Zhang et al. (2005)
MAE Hydrochloric acid 280 W/5 min 17.10
UAE Hydrochloric acid 250 W/30 min 10.74
Percolation Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide _ 6.14
2. Anthocyanin Grape WE Water 70 °C 7.93b Corrales et al. (2008)
Ultrasonics Water and ethanol 600 MPa 7.76  
HHP Water and glycol 35 kHz 11.21  
PEF Water and ethanol 3 kV cm−1 14.05  
3. Hesperetin Orange LPT 70 °C/30 s 11.56f Plaza et al. (2011)
HPT 400 MPa/40 °C/1 min 13.34
PEF 35 kV cm1/750 ms 11.09
4. Lutein Orange LPT 70 °C/30 s 226.42e Plaza et al. (2011)
HPT 400 MPa/40 °C/1 min 361.17
PEF 35 kV cm1/750 ms 260.86
5. Lycopene Tomato waste SFE Liquid CO2 400 bar/80 °C/4 g CO2/min/105 min 728.98c Kehili et al. (2017)
SE Hexane 608.94
Ethyl acetate 320.35
Ethanol 284.53
6. Naringenin Orange LPT 70 °C/30 s 3.87e Plaza et al. (2011)
HPT 400 MPa/40 °C/1 min 4.43
PEF 35 kV cm1/750 ms 3.42
7. Total phenolic Red grape pomace SE Water Refluxing for 2–3 h 96,386d Drosou et al. (2015)
Ethanol Refluxing for 5–6 h 102,995
UAE Water 25 kHz/300 W/20 °C/60 min 50,959
Water and ethanol 25 kHz/300 W/20 °C/60 min 438,984
MAE Water 50 °C/200 W/60 min 52,645
Water and ethanol 50 °C/200 W/60 min 200,025
8. Total phenolic content Orange pomace (dry) SFE Pure ethanol 25 MPa and 60 °C 21.2g Espinosa-Pardo et al. (2017)
Ethanol:water-9:1 25 MPa and 60 °C 20.7
Orange pomace (fermented) SFE Pure ethanol 25 MPa and 60 °C 19.0
Ethanol:water-9:1 25 MPa and 60 °C 47.0
9. Zeaxantin Orange LPT 70 °C/30 s 259.95g Plaza et al. (2011)
HPT 400 MPa/40 °C/1 min 408.56
PEF 35 kV cm1/750 ms 278.70
10. α-Carotene Orange LPT 70 °C/30 s) 25.04g Plaza et al. (2011)
HPT 400 MPa/40 °C/1 min 38.06
PEF 35 kV cm1/750 ms 26.64
11. α-Cryptoxanthin Orange LPT 70 °C/30 s 93.99 Plaza et al. (2011)
HPT 400 MPa/40 °C/1 min 167.26
PEF 35 kV cm1/750 ms 101.52
12. β-Carotene Orange LPT 70 °C/30 s 32.72g Plaza et al. (2011)
HPT 400 MPa/40°C/1 min 53.78
PEF 35 kV cm1/750 ms 33.74
13. β-Cryptoxanthin Orange LPT 70 °C/30 s 235.21g Plaza et al. (2011)
HPT 400 MPa/40 °C/1 min 330.07
PEF 35 kV cm1/750 ms 230.53
  1. HHP high hydrostatic pressure, HPT high-pressure treatment, LPT low pasteurization treatment, MAE microwave assisted extraction, PEF pulsed electric field, SE solvent extraction, WE water extraction
  2. amg/g sample; bmg Cy-3-glu eq. g−1 dry matter; cmg/kg’; dppm GAE in dry extract of air dried grape pomace; eµg/100ml; fmg/100ml; gGAE/g of extract
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