Skip to main content

Table 1 The toxicity of some DESs

From: Recent progress on deep eutectic solvents in biocatalysis

DESs Organism Toxicity comments References
MTPB/Gly (1:3)
MTPB/EG (1:3)
MTPB/TEG (1:3)
Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Artemia salina All the DESs showed toxic effect on some bacteria
The cytotoxicity of DESs was much higher than their individual components
Hayyan et al. (2013a)
ChCl/Gly (1:3)
ChCl/EG (1:3)
ChCl/U (1:3)
ChCl/TEG (1:3)
Escherichia coli, Staphlococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Artemia salina All the DESs showed no toxic effect on the bacteria
The cytotoxicity of DESs was much higher than their individual components
Hayyan et al. (2013b)
ChCl/Gly (1:3)
ChCl/EG (1:3)
ChCl/TEG (1:3)
ChCl/U (1:3)
PC3, A375, HepG2, HT29, MCF-7, OKF6, H413, ICR mice The cytotoxicity of DESs varied from various cell lines. The toxic effects of DESs were higher than their individual components Hayyan et al. (2015)
ChCl or ChOAc/U (1:1)
ChCl or ChOAc/Gly (1:1)
ChCl or ChOAc/A (1:1)
ChCl or ChOAc/EG (1:1)
Escherichia coli 0.75 M DES could afford an inhibition index of 72.8–93.8% for the bacterium and was more toxic then the components Wen et al. (2015)
ChCl/EG (1:2)
ChCl/Gly (1:2)
ChCl/U (1:2)
DAC/EG (1:2)
EAC/Gly (1:2)
DAC/MA (1:1)
DAC/ZnN (1:1)
DAC/ZnCl2 (1:2)
Aspergillus niger, Cyprinus carpio fish Metal salt-containing DESs were most toxic than others. DAC-based DESs were less toxic than ChCl-based DESs Juneidi et al. (2015)
20 kinds of NADESs Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis All the DESs except for acid-containing DESs showed no toxic effect on the bacteria Zhao et al. (2015)
ChCl/ZnCl2 (1:2)
ChCl/U (1:2)
ChCl/Gly (1:3)
ChCl/EG (1:3)
ChCl/DEG (1:2)
ChCl/TEG (1:3)
ChCl/Fru (2:1)
ChCl/Glc (2:1)
ChCl/PTSA (1:3)
ChCl/MA (1:1)
Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus, Candida cylindracea ZnCl2, PTSA and MA DESs had the most toxic effect Juneidi et al. (2016)
ChCl/Fru/water (5:2:5)
ChCl/Glc/water (5:2:5)
ChCl/Suc/water (4:1:4)
ChCl/Gly/water (1:2:1)
ChCl/malonic acid (1:1)
HelaS3, CaOV3, B16F10, MCF-7 NADESs except malonic acid as HBD are less toxic than DESs Hayyan et al. (2016)
Choline and geranate (1:2) M. tuberculosis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa et al. The DES is so toxic that it can act as a broad-spectrum antiseptic agent Zakrewsky et al. (2016)
ChCl/Fru (2:1)
ChCl/Glc (2:1)
DAC/TEG (1:3)
HelaS3, PC3, AGS, A375, MCF-7, WRL-68 The DESs (ChCl/Fru and ChCl/Glc, 98 mM ≤ EC50 ≤ 516 mM) were less toxic than DAC/TEG(34 mM ≤ EC50 ≤ 120 mM) Mbous et al. (2017)