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Table 3 Examples of lipase-catalyzed reactions in DESs

From: Recent progress on deep eutectic solvents in biocatalysis

Enzyme DES Substrate Product Comments Reference
iCALB, CALB, CALA and PCL ChCl/Gly (1:2)
ChCl/U (1:2)
EAC/Gly (1:1.5)
Ethyl valerate with 1-butano Butyl valerate ChCl/Gly showed good compatibility with all the lipases Gorke et al. (2008)
iCALB ChCl/U (1:2)
ChOAc/Gly
Miglyol oil 812 Triglyceride High yield showed the potential of DES as solvent in the biodiesel synthesis Zhao et al. (2011a)
iCALB ChCl/Gly (1:2)
ChCl/U (1:2)
Vinyl ester and alcohols Esters Some HBDs could compete with the substrate Durand et al. (2012)
Novozyme 435 ChCl/Gly (1:2) Soybean oil Biodiesel This work expanded the substrate spectrum of biodiesel synthesis Zhao et al. (2013)
Novozyme 435 ChCl/Gly (1:2)
ChCl/U (1:2)
Phenolic esters Phenolic esters Water content in DES–water mixtures makes great difference on reaction efficiency Durand et al. (2013)
iCALB ChCl/U Phenolic esters Phenolic esters First investigated the effect of water activity and U content on product yields Durand et al. (2014)
Lipozyme CalB L
Novozym 435
ChCl/U (1:2)
ChCl/GlyZ (1:1)
Oleic acid and decanol Decyl oleate Esters product could be easily separated from the aqueous reaction mixtures Kleiner and Schörken (2015)
Novozyme 435 ChCl/U (1:2)
ChCl/Glc
Glucose and vinyl hexanoate Glucose-6-O-hexanoate Glucose component in DESs can act as substrate Pöhnlein et al. (2015)
Lipozyme TLIM, Novozym 435 ChAc/U (2:1) Glucose with fatty acid vinyl esters; methyl glucoside with fatty acids Sugar fatty acid esters Utilization of combination of ILs and DESs Zhao et al. (2016)
CALB, Alcalase-CLEA, PPL ChCl/Gly (1:1.5) Aromatic aldehydes and ketones Aldol products First tested the lipase-catalyzed aldol reaction in DES Gonzalez-Martinez et al. (2016)
Lipase from Candida rugosa ChCl/U/Gly (1:1:1) p-Nitrophenyl palmitate p-Nitrophenol Glycerol-containing DESs enhance the activity and stability more than urea-based DESs. The effects of DESs on activity and stability of lipase were partially correlated with the solvatochromic parameters. For example, the stability of lipase was correlated with hydrogen bond acidity of DESs mixtures Kim et al. (2016)
Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase
Pseudozyma antarctica lipase B
ChCl/U (1:2)
ChCl/Gly (1:2)
Rapeseed oil and cooking oil Biodiesel Improved the additional value of cooking oil Kleiner et al. (2016)
Lipozyme TLIM, Novozym 435 ChAc/U (2:1) Glucose with fatty acid vinyl esters; methyl glucoside with fatty acids Glucose-based fatty acid esters Utilization of combination of ILs and DESs Zhao et al. (2016)
Lipase AS ChCl/Gly (1:2) Aldehydes Nitroalcohols Addition of water could improve enzyme activity and inhibit DES-catalyzed reaction Tian et al. (2016)
Burkholderia cepacia lipase ChCl/EG (1:2) p-Nitrophenyl palmitate p-Nitrophenol Significantly improved enzyme activity Juneidi et al. (2017)
Lipase from ANL ChCl/Gly (1:3) Burkholderia cepacia lipase Dihydromyricetin Dihydromyricetin-16-acetate Enhancing substrate solubility Cao et al. (2017)
iCALB ChCl/different sugars (1:1) Fatty acid esters Glycolipids Sugar can serve as HBD and substrate Siebenhaller et al. (2017)
Lipase G ChCl/xylitol (1:1) Glyceryl trioleate Epoxidized vegetable oils DES stabilized the enzyme Zhou et al. (2017a)
iCALB ChCl/Gly (1:2) Benzoic acid and glycerol α-Monobenzoate glycerol Water as co-solvent enzyme remained active in high concentration of DES (92%,v/v) Guajardo et al. (2017)
PPL ChCl/U (1:2) Amines with aryl halides N-aryl amines DES acted as catalyst as well as solvent Pant and Shankarling (2017)