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Table 1 Summary of recent studies employing enzymes for cell wall pretreatment

From: Green microalgae biomolecule separations and recovery

Microalgae species Target product Enzyme (with conditions) Secondary and/or enhancing treatments Yield/results/conclusions References
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Cell wall carbohydrates 0.005% α-amylase, 90 °C, for liquefaction, and 0.2% glucoamylase, pH 4.5, 55 °C for saccharification Yeast fermentation for ethanol production 94% carbohydrate hydrolysis 29.2% ethanol production efficiency Choi et al. (2010)
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Native proteins and lipids Gamete autolysin, pH 7.5, 23–37 °C; trypsin, pH 7.8, 37 °C Organic solvent extraction 85% cell lysis and 55% total protein release with gamete autolysin and 73% total lipid release with trypsin Soto Sierra et al. (2017)
Chlorella sp. Cell wall carbohydrates Cellulases, xylanases, and amylases enzymes, pH 4.8, 50 °C Cells chilled with 95% (v/v) ethanol, cold dried, and ground prior to enzymatic application 2.9–5.0% hydrolyzed glucose depending on species and 4.8–8.6 total reducing sugars Rodrigues and da Silva Bon (2011)
Chlorella vulgaris Lipids Cellulase (Celluclast 1.5 L) β-glucosidases (Novozyme 188), pH 4.8, 50 °C Organic solvent extraction 85.3% cell wall hydrolysis after 72 h
Improved lipid extraction yield (1.29- to 1.73-fold) depending on solvent utilized
Cho et al. (2013)
Chlorella vulgaris Cell wall carbohydrates Alcalase®, pH 8.0, 50 °C Aerobic digestion for methane production Enhanced methane production (64% increase in yield) Mahdy et al. (2014b)
Chlorella vulgaris Lipids Snailase (37 °C), lysozyme (55 °C), cellulose (55 °C), no pH specified Organic solvent extraction 7% lipids extracted with snailase, 22% lipids extracted with lysozyme, 24% lipids extracted with cellulose Zheng et al. (2011)
Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus dimorphus, and Nannochloropsis sp. Cell wall and lipids Cellulase, snailase, neutral protease, alkaline protease, and trypsin, pH 4.0, no temperature specified Ultrasonication 49.82% lipid recovery in C. vulgaris, 46.81% lipid recovery in S. dimorphus, 11.73% lipid recovery in Nannochloropsis sp. Liang et al. (2012)
Haematococcus pluvialis Carotenoids Glucanex®, pH 4.5, 55 °C Ultrasonication 83.9% carotenoid extraction Machado et al. (2016)
Haematococcus pluvialis Astaxanthin 0.1% Protease K and 0.5% Driselase®, pH 5.8, 30 °C Organic solvent extraction Low total carotenoid yield after enzymatic treatment Mendes-Pinto et al. (2001)
Nannochloropsis sp. Lipids Feedlyve® GMA (Fe-GMA)-galactomannanase and Cellulyve® 50LC (Ce-50LC)-β-cellobiosidase/β-glucosidase, pH 6.0, 45 °C Organic solvent extraction 68.6% lipid extraction Zuorro et al. (2015)
Nannochloropsis sp. Lipids Ternary mixture of one cellulose and two hemicellulases, pH 5.0, 50 °C Organic solvent extraction 37.2 g lipids per 100 g of dry biomass recovered Zuorro et al. (2016)