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Fig. 3 | Bioresources and Bioprocessing

Fig. 3

From: Feedback control based on NADH fluorescence intensity for Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivations

Fig. 3

a Evolution of the dissolved oxygen and the NADH intensity during the fed-batch operation with the closed-loop control. b Evolution of the NADH intensity and its derivative as a metabolic signal during the fed-batch operation with the closed-loop control. The arrows show the points that the upper threshold was reached, but it might be because of the noise of the NADH intensity. c Metabolic signals and the feed rate profile during the controlled feeding phase. The arrows refer to the time that the lower threshold signal was not reached. d Glucose, ethanol, and biomass concentrations during the fed-batch operation with the closed-loop control

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