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Table 1 Comparison of fuel properties of different fuels [Refs. (Kiss et al. 2016; Balat 2011; Prakash et al. 2016)]

From: Agricultural byproducts-based biosorbents for purification of bioalcohols: a review

Property Gasoline E10 Methanol Ethanol n-Butanol 2-propanol Hydrogen Electricity
Chemical structure C4 to C12 and ethanol ≤ 10% CH3OH C2H5OH C3H8OH C3H8O H2 N/A
Feedstock Crude oil Natural gas, coal, or, woody biomass Corn, grains, or agri waste (cellulose) Corn, grains, or agri waste (cellulose) Corn, grains, or agri waste (cellulose) Natural gas, methanol, and electrolysis of water Coal, nuclear, natural gas, hydroelectric, wind and solar
Boiling point (°C) 35–200 64.7 78.4 117.7 82.6 N/A N/A
Energy content (lower heating value) (BTU/gallon) 112,114
− 116,090
57,250 76,330 99,837 51,585 3414 BTU/kWh
Energy content (higher heating value) (BTU/gallon) 120,388
− 124,340
65,200 84,530 108,458 61,013 3414 BTU/kWh
Physical state Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Compressed gas N/A
Pump octane number 84–93 112 110 87 130+ N/A
Flash point (°C) − 43 11 13 35 12–25 N/A N/A
Autoignition temperature (°C) 257 480 434 385 565–582 N/A