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Table 2 Functions of grape pomace in food beverages

From: Novel application and industrial exploitation of winery by-products

Food product Recovered ingredients Practical application References
Wheat bread White grape skin antioxidant dietary fibre Inhibition of mammalian α-glucosidase and α-amylase Lavelli et al. (2015a)
Bread Grape seed flour Fortification with fatty acids and minerals. Enhancement of physical and sensory properties Munteanu et al. (2013)
Brownies White grape skin antioxidant dietary fibre Decrease in firmness and chewiness and increase in springiness Walker et al. (2014)
Biscuits Red grape pomace extract Increase in TP and antioxidant activity Increase in compounds derived from the Maillard reaction, except pyrazines, and lipid oxidation Pasqualone et al. (2013)
Muffins Grape peel and seed flour Fortification with phenols/fibers. Enhancement of physical and sensory properties Oliveira et al. (2013)
Pasta Red grape pomace Increase in TP and antioxidant activity. Decrease in cooking loss Marinelli et al. (2015)
Tomato puree White grape skin antioxidant dietary fibre Increase in Bostwick consistency, storage (G) and loss (G) moduli, and complex viscosity Lavelli et al. (2015b)
Orange and apple juices Red and white pomace extracts Antifungal activity towards Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Z. bailii with variety-dependent efficacy Sagdic et al. (2011)
Beef sausage Grape seed extract powder Decrease in TBARS content during processing and storage in polyvinyl chloride bags. Higher efficacy than ascorbate Kulkarni et al. (2011)
Chicken hamburger Red grape pomace antioxidant dietary fibre Decrease in TBARS content during processing and storage in polyvinyl chloride bags. High antioxidant activity and fibre content Sáyago-Ayerdi et al. (2009)
Chicken meatballs Red and white grape pomace extract Decrease in TBARS content during processing and storage at − 18 °C under vacuum Selani et al. (2011)
Cheese Red and white grape pomace antioxidant dietary fibre before and after distillation Highest radical scavenging activity and TP content, yielding 16 g/kg of grape powder after distillation. No effect on lactic bacteria or proteolysis Marchiani et al. (2015)
Yogurt Red and white grape skin antioxidant dietary fibre Increase in acidity, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity with respect to control, but lower pH, syneresis and fat. Lactic acid bacteria, phenolic content and antioxidant activity were stable during 3 weeks of storage Marchiani et al. (2016)
Yogurt and salad dressing Red grape pomace antioxidant dietary fibre Increase in TDF, TP and radical scavenging activity (but slight decrease in TP during storage at 4 °C). Decrease in peroxide values for both yogurt and salad dressing. Stable value for lactic acid percentage and syneresis during 3 weeks of storage at 4 °C for yogurt Tseng and Zhao (2013b)
Ice cream Grape seeds extract Fortification of phenols. Enhancement of sensory properties Sagdic et al. (2012)
Milk White pomace extract Fortification of phenols. Enhancement of sensory properties Aliakbarian et al. (2015)