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Table 6 Total energy input of Harvesting and Downstream processes

From: Integration of biology, ecology and engineering for sustainable algal-based biofuel and bioproduct biorefinery

References Total energy input (MJ/kg dry algae) Comments
Campbell et al. (2011) 2.625 Diesel tractor used in harvesting algae
Clarens et al. (2009) 14.79 Harvested via flocculation and centrifugation
Collet et al. (2011) 5.5 Harvested in two steps. Natural settling and centrifugation
Jorquera et al. (2010) 5.17 According to Clarens et al. (2009)
Khoo et al. (2011) 2.73 Air sparging-assisted coagulation flocculation (ASACF) process is used in harvesting
Lardon et al. (2009) 24.08 Low N culture. Harvested via flocculation
Lardon et al. (2009) 23.89 Normal N culture. Harvested via flocculation
Liu and Ma (2009) 3.75 Concentration
Razon and Tan (2011) 35.56 Harvesting process via thickener, microfiltration and bead mill
Yanfen et al. (2012) 41.13 Harvested by sedimentation and centrifugation
Resurreccion et al. (2012) 44.73 OP-FW configuration. Primary dewatering
Resurreccion et al. (2012) 32.44 OP-BSW configuration. Primary dewatering
Frank et al. (2013) 0.23 Harvested by bio-flocculation, dissolved-air flotation, and centrifugation.
Bennion et al. (2015) 12.3 Dewatered via membrane filtration system and centrifugation.
Jorquera et al. (2010) 9.02 According to Clarens et al. (2009)
Resurreccion et al. (2012) 32.04 PBR-FW configuration. Primary dewatering
Resurreccion et al. (2012) 18.26 PBR-BSW configuration. Primary dewatering
  1. According to Ketzer et al. (2018). The total energy input varies with an approximate average of 28 MJ/kg dry algae