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Table 7 Comparison of different lipid extractions methods (Ghasemi Naghdi et al. 2016; Mercer and Armenta 2011; Mubarak et al. 2015; Sahena et al. 2009)

From: Integration of biology, ecology and engineering for sustainable algal-based biofuel and bioproduct biorefinery

Extraction method Advantages Limitations
Ultrasound-assisted Reduced extraction time
Great penetration of solvent into the cellular materials, low set-up costs
Environmentally friendly and safe
Reduced solvent consumption
High power consumption
Microwave-assisted High extraction efficiency
Environmentally friendly and safe
More economical, fast operational time
Efficient on wet biomass
Improved extraction yield
Poor efficiency may occur when target compounds or the solvents are non-polar, or volatile
At commercial scale the cost maybe limiting
Enzymatic disruption Minimal damage to the lipid and hydrocarbons, promising on wet biomass
Safe and environmentally friendly
Easily scalable
Long cycle time
Species dependent
Supercritical carbon dioxide Promising green technology
Lipid extraction rate is fast
Can be used for large-scale
Production of solvent-free extract
Environmentally friendly and safe
Low toxicity solvents
High capital cost
Solvent extraction High efficiency
Simple and economical
Lipid extraction rate is slow
Expensive organic solvent is needed
solvent recovery is energy intensive
Solvents are flammable and/or toxic