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Table 1 Identification of intracellular metabolites of S. aureus

From: The antimicrobial effects and mechanism of ε-poly-lysine against Staphylococcus aureus

Class No. Metabolites Metabolite abundance (relative to value of control groups)
2 h 4 h
250 μg/mL 500 μg/mL 750 μg/mL 250 μg/mL 500 μg/mL 750 μg/mL
Central carbon metabolism 2 Lactate 0.45 ± 0.02 0.79 ± 0.04 0.55 ± 0.03 0.64 ± 0.03 0.68 ± 0.03 0.42 ± 0.02
15 Succinate 0.28 ± 0.01 0.30 ± 0.02 0.17 ± 0.01 0.41 ± 0.02 0.20 ± 0.01 0.11 ± 0.01
18 Fumarate 0.49 ± 0.02 0.32 ± 0.03 0.24 ± 0.01 0.65 ± 0.03 0.61 ± 0.03 0.29 ± 0.02
27 Glycerate-3P 0.91 ± 0.05 0.54 ± 0.03 0.53 ± 0.03 0.71 ± 0.04 0.59 ± 0.03 0.20 ± 0.01
36 Glycerate-2P 0.84 ± 0.04 1.04 ± 0.05 0.56 ± 0.03 0.54 ± 0.03 0.75 ± 0.04 0.64 ± 0.03
38 Citrate 2.47 ± 0.1 3.18 ± 0.16 6.56 ± 0.32 7.17 ± 0.36 16.41 ± 0.8 33.51 ± 1.67
50 Glucose 0.90 ± 0.05 1.63 ± 0.08 1.47 ± 0.07 1.67 ± 0.08 1.86 ± 0.09 2.46 ± 0.12
Urea cycle 11 Urea 0.26 ± 0.01 0.28 ± 0.01 0.32 ± 0.02 0.31 ± 0.02 0.39 ± 0.02 0.36 ± 0.02
37 Ornithine 0.08 ± 0.004 0.06 ± 0.003 0.04 ± 0.002 0.28 ± 0.02 0.10 ± 0.005 0.03 ± 0.001
Amino acids 4 Valine 1.84 ± 0.09 2.48 ± 0.12 1.20 ± 0.06 0.95 ± 0.05 1.65 ± 0.08 0.81 ± 0.04
5 Alanine 1.68 ± 0.08 0.88 ± 0.04 0.55 ± 0.03 4.09 ± 0.2 1.56 ± 0.08 0.56 ± 0.03
7 Leucine 2.36 ± 0.1 2.69 ± 0.13 1.28 ± 0.06 1.02 ± 0.05 1.71 ± 0.08 0.85 ± 0.04
9 Proline 6.08 ± 0.3 7.83 ± 0.4 3.90 ± 0.2 4.29 ± 0.2 8.56 ± 0.042 4.73 ± 0.23
12 Serine 0.54 ± 0.03 0.55 ± 0.03 0.46 ± 0.02 0.38 ± 0.02 0.32 ± 0.02 0.38 ± 0.02
14 Isoleucine 1.84 ± 0.2 2.72 ± 0.14 2.57 ± 0.14 1.45 ± 0.07 1.45 ± 0.07 1.49 ± 0.07
19 Threonine 0.81 ± 0.04 0.97 ± 0.05 0.93 ± 0.05 0.66 ± 0.03 0.73 ± 0.04 0.36 ± 0.02
21 Aspartic acid 0.91 ± 0.05 0.63 ± 0.03 0.29 ± 0.01 0.48 ± 0.02 0.21 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.01
22 β-Alanine 0.41 ± 0.02 0.35 ± 0.02 0.17 ± 0.01 0.58 ± 0.03 0.31 ± 0.02 0.27 ± 0.02
28 Glutamic acid 0.50 ± 0.03 0.34 ± 0.02 0.21 ± 0.01 0.58 ± 0.03 0.21 ± 0.01 0.17 ± 0.01
29 Phenylalanine 0.66 ± 0.03 0.58 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.01 0.39 ± 0.02 0.23 ± 0.01 0.09 ± 0.004
42 Lysine 0.19 ± 0.01 0.11 ± 0.01 0.09 ± 0.005 0.22 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.004 0.04 ± 0.004
43 Tyrosine 0.34 ± 0.02 0.22 ± 0.01 0.15 ± 0.01 0.27 ± 0.02 0.09 ± 0.005 0.07 ± 0.004
24 Glycyl-l-glutamic acid 0.30 ± 0.02 0.29 ± 0.02 0.15 ± 0.008 0.40 ± 0.02 0.12 ± 0.006 0.10 ± 0.005
48 N-α-Acetyl-l-lysine 0.35 ± 0.02 0.29 ± 0.02 0.19 ± 0.01 0.47 ± 0.02 0.26 ± 0.01 0.18 ± 0.01
Acid 31 Pyrophosphate 0.82 ± 0.04 0.83 ± 0.04 0.55 ± 0.03 0.88 ± 0.04 1.04 ± 0.05 0.59 ± 0.03
1 N,N-Dimethylglycine 1.01 ± 0.05 1.19 ± 0.05 0.47 ± 0.02 0.69 ± 0.04 0.61 ± 0.03 0.30 ± 0.02
3 Acetate 0.81 ± 0.04 0.51 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.01 0.79 ± 0.04 0.47 ± 0.03 0.35 ± 0.02
6 Ethanedioic acid 0.49 ± 0.03 0.53 ± 0.03 0.47 ± 0.03 1.46 ± 0.07 1.00 ± 0.05 0.85 ± 0.04
8 2-Aminobutyric acid 0.75 ± 0.04 0.48 ± 0.03 0.05 ± 0.003 1.18 ± 0.05 0.54 ± 0.03 0.14 ± 0.005
10 Phosphoric acid 0.53 ± 0.03 0.41 ± 0.02 0.28 ± 0.01 0.53 ± 0.03 0.29 ± 0.02 0.24 ± 0.02
16 Propanoic acid 0.35 ± 0.02 0.20 ± 0.01 0.07 ± 0.003 2.01 ± 0.1 1.14 ± 0.05 0.20 ± 0.01
26 Pentanedioic acid 0.37 ± 0.02 0.22 ± 0.01 0.24 ± 0.01 0.37 ± 0.02 0.23 ± 0.01 0.24 ± 0.01
34 Heptanedioic acid 0.32 ± 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.03 ± 0.001 0.00 0.00
40 Pentadecanoic acid 1.13 ± 0.05 1.44 ± 0.07 1.50 ± 0.08 1.28 ± 0.06 1.48 ± 0.07 1.16 ± 0.05
47 Heptadecanoic acid 1.47 ± 0.07 1.79 ± 0.09 1.79 ± 0.09 1.56 ± 0.08 1.83 ± 0.1 1.92 ± 0.1
Carbohydrate 32 Arabinose 0.36 ± 0.02 0.42 ± 0.03 1.45 ± 0.07 0.66 ± 0.03 0.90 ± 0.05 1.69 ± 0.08
41 d-Mannose 0.41 ± 0.02 0.72 ± 0.03 0.78 ± 0.03 0.39 ± 0.02 0.38 ± 0.02 0.45 ± 0.02
46 Pentofuranose 0.67 ± 0.03 0.95 ± 0.05 0.55 ± 0.03 0.95 ± 0.05 1.26 ± 0.06 1.02 ± 0.05
49 d-Ribose 0.24 ± 0.01 0.22 ± 0.01 0.11 ± 0.005 0.46 ± 0.02 0.26 ± 0.01 0.22 ± 0.01
Alcohol 44 d-Sorbitol 0.72 ± 0.04 0.42 ± 0.03 0.54 ± 0.03 2.82 ± 0.14 0.73 ± 0.04 0.73 ± 0.04
45 d-Mannitol 0.61 ± 0.03 0.60 ± 0.03 0.55 ± 0.03 2.11 ± 0.1 0.57 ± 0.03 0.56 ± 0.03
Amine 20 Aminomethane 0.72 ± 0.04 0.56 ± 0.03 0.50 ± 0.03 0.72 ± 0.03 0.51 ± 0.03 0.54 ± 0.03
30 Asparagine 0.69 ± 0.04 0.58 ± 0.03 0.26 ± 0.01 1.36 ± 0.15 1.18 ± 0.05 0.30 ± 0.02
35 Glutamine 2.13 ± 0.1 3.71 ± 0.2 2.55 ± 0.13 0.76 ± 0.04 3.26 ± 0.2 2.64 ± 0.13
53 d-Glucosamine 0.39 ± 0.02 0.39 ± 0.02 0.16 ± 0.01 0.52 ± 0.03 0.39 ± 0.02 0.21 ± 0.01
Other compounds 13 Phosphate 0.90 ± 0.1 0.68 ± 0.04 0.38 ± 0.02 0.80 ± 0.04 0.56 ± 0.03 0.51 ± 0.03
17 Pyrimidine 0.31 ± 0.02 0.44 ± 0.02 0.34 ± 0.02 0.67 ± 0.04 0.35 ± 0.02 0.26 ± 0.01
23 Aminoethanol 0.46 ± 0.02 0.57 ± 0.03 0.57 ± 0.03 0.51 ± 0.03 0.49 ± 0.02 0.49 ± 0.02
25 N-Acetylmethionine 29.47 ± 1.47 25.36 ± 1.27 17.44 ± 1.0 21.95 ± 1.1 21.25 ± 1.1 20.77 ± 1.0
33 Glycerophosphate 0.42 ± 0.02 0.55 ± 0.03 0.39 ± 0.02 0.53 ± 0.03 0.73 ± 0.04 0.40 ± 0.02
39 Adenine 0.30 ± 0.02 0.17 ± 0.01 0.09 ± 0.005 0.44 ± 0.02 0.17 ± 0.01 0.09 ± 0.005
51 2-Palmitoylglycero 1.02 ± 0.05 0.65 ± 0.04 0.70 ± 0.04 1.07 ± 0.05 1.26 ± 0.05 0.97 ± 0.05
52 Uridine 0.49 ± 0.02 0.51 ± 0.03 0.35 ± 0.02 0.39 ± 0.02 0.50 ± 0.03 0.39 ± 0.02
54 Adenosine 0.31 ± 0.02 0.25 ± 0.02 0.07 ± 0.004 0.42 ± 0.02 0.21 ± 0.01 0.07 ± 0.004