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Table 3 Examples of oil-in-water nanoemulsions by using different methods

From: Valorization of fruits and vegetables waste through green extraction of bioactive compounds and their nanoemulsions-based delivery system

Bioactive componentOil phaseSurfactant/co-surfactantParticle diameter (nm)References
Ultrasonication/ultrasonication homogenizer
CurcuminMCTWhey protein concentrate-70/Tween-80141.6 ± 15.4Sari et al. (2015)
QuercetinLemon oil/corn oilSaponin, Tween-2052 ± 10Kaur et al. (2016)
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)Rapeseed oil/rapeseed lecithinXanthan gum and carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (as a thickeners)< 170Kaci et al. (2018)
a) Lemon myrtle essential oil (LMEO)
b) Anise myrtle essential oil (AMEO)
Tween 80LMEO (≈ 16.07)
AMEO (≈ 30.23)
Nirmal et al. (2018)
High-pressure homogenizer
β-CaroteneMCTModified starch, decaglycerol monolaurate, Tween 20, whey protein isolate115–178Mao et al. (2009)
Resveratrol and CurcuminPeanut oil, palm oil and stearic acidSoy lecithin, sugar ester, modified starch, vegetables protein< 200Donsì et al. (2011)
ω-3 PUFA in oil phaseFish oil (EPA and DHA)Span 80, Tween 20
Sesame protein isolate (Natural alternative surfactants)
< 100Dey et al. (2018)
High-speed homogenizer
Olive oil endogenous phenolic compounds (vanillic, caffeic and syringic acid)Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO)Tween 20> 251Katsouli et al. (2018)
Phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, vanillic acid)Olive oilTween 20< 500Polychniatou and Tzia (2018)
Eugenia brejoensis essential oilTween 80355.63 ± 21.70 to 143.13 ± 1.1Mendes et al. (2018)
β-CaroteneCorn oilWhey protein isolate, Quillaja saponins140–160Luo et al. (2017)
α-TocopherolMCTGlycerol, decaglycerol monooleate soybean lecithin, glycerol SDS, Tween 20, beta-lactoglobulin80–400Hatanaka et al. (2010)
Spontaneous emulsification
CapsanthinMCTTween 80 and span 20≈ 30–150An et al. (2014)
Vitamin DMCTTween 80, or Tween 85/SDS Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 40≈ 100Guttoff et al. (2015)
Emulsion phase inversion
Vitamin EMCTTween 20, sucrose monopalmitate, Tween 40, Tween 85, Q-natural, casein, Tween 80, whey protein isolate, Tween 60≈ 40Mayer et al. (2013)
Vitamin ETributyrinTween 80≈ 110Hategekimana and Zhong (2015)