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Table 3 Isomerization of glucose to fructose with representative homogenous catalysts at different reactions conditions

From: Isomerization of glucose into fructose with homogenous amine-type base catalysts: amine structure, chain length, and kinetics

Catalysts (loading) Conditions (solvent, temperature, time, glucose concentration) Glu conv. (%) Fru yie. (%) Fru sel. (%) Ref
Triethylamine (10 mol%) H2O, 100 °C, 20 min, 10 wt% 51 32 63 Liu et al. (2014)
Quinuclidine (10 mol%) H2O, 100 °C, 2 h, 10 wt% 54 29 54 Deshpande et al. (2019)
Triethylamine (10 mol%) H2O, 100 °C, 2 h, 10 wt% 48 27 56 Deshpande et al. (2019)
Diisopropylethylamine (10 mol%) H2O, 100 °C, 2 h, 10 wt% 33 23 70 Deshpande et al. (2019)
Tri-n-propylamine (10 mol%) H2O, 100 °C, 2 h, 10 wt% 12 9 75 Deshpande et al. (2019)
Imidazole (160 mol%) H2O, 120 °C, 0.5 h, 10 wt% 60 33 55 Yang et al. (2015)
1-(3-Aminopropyl) imidazole (7.5 mol%) H2O, 120 °C, 0.5 h, 10 wt% 47 20 43 Yang et al. (2015)
Tetramethylguanidine (3 mol%) H2O, 120 °C, 0.5 h, 10 wt% 59 30 51 Yang et al. (2015)
1,5,7-Triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (3 mol%) H2O, 120 °C, 0.5 h, 10 wt% 64 32 50 Yang et al. (2015)
Trimethylamine (3 mol%) H2O, 100 °C, 0.5 h, 10 wt% 43 28 65 Yang et al. (2015)
Tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (3 mol%) H2O, 100 °C, 0.5 h, 10 wt% 43 24 56 Yang et al. (2015)
Polyethylenimine (0.5 mol%) H2O, 100 °C, 0.5 h, 10 wt% 38 21 55 Yang et al.(2015)
Arginine (10 mol%) H2O, 120 °C, 20 min, 10 wt% 41 31 76 Yang et al. (2016)
Polyethylenimine (0.05 mol%) H2O, 110–120 °C, 15 min, 10 wt% 47–50 33–36 66–77 Yang and Runge (2016)
Hexylamine (10 mol%) H2O, 110 °C, 10 min, 10 wt% 39 24 62 This work
APTES H2O, 110 °C, 60 min, 10 wt% 34 20 58 This work
APTMS H2O, 110 °C, 60 min, 10 wt% 50 31 61 This work
DMASi H2O, 110 °C, 60 min, 10 wt% 45 34 75 This work
  1. Glu conv. glucose conversion, Fru yie. fructose yield, Fru sel. fructose selectivity