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Table 3 Properties of TCR® bio-oil from spent coffee grounds through TCR® system and other technologies

From: Thermo-Catalytic Reforming of spent coffee grounds

SystemHeating rate (°C/min)Ultimate analysis (wt%)HHV (MJ/kg)H2O (wt%)TAN (mgKOH/g)References
CHNO (diff.)S
TCR® at 500 °C200–30075.99.63.310.80.4136.03.927 
TCR® at 600 °C200–30078.18.34.38.40.836.23.616 
TCR® at 700 °C200–30079.36.83.89.20.7636.81.98.1 
Fast pyrolysis at 500 °C6028.9–44.96.5–12.00.8–5.042.0–59.50.07–0.1217.210–15pH 3.1Kelkar et al. (2015), Li et al. (2014)
Fast pyrolysis at 450 °C1000 k/s54.37.43.035.30.023.123.9pH 3.1Bok et al. (2012)