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Table 5 Properties and gas composition from spent coffee grounds through TCR® system and other technologies

From: Thermo-Catalytic Reforming of spent coffee grounds

SystemGas composition (vol%)Density (kg/m3)HHV (MJ/m3)LHV (MJ/kg)References
H2COCO2CH4CxHy
TCR® at 500 °C24.315.231.10.0b4.91.2423.117.5 
TCR® at 600 °C34.211.624.20.04b4.81.0622.619.2 
TCR® at 700 °C38.712.122.60.23b3.70.9720.619.1 
Catalytic pyrolysis at 500 °C to 700 °C0.5–2.24.5–7.0a0.2–0.7aaaaCho et al. (2016, 2017)
Anaerobic digestionaa30–4050–59aaa28.66Luz et al. (2017)
  1. aData are not available
  2. bThe high content of hydrocarbons in the gases influences the detection of the other gases, especially methane caused by a crosswise relation between these compounds