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Table 8 Optimization and validation of biodiesel yield

From: Response surface optimization of biodiesel yield from pre-treated waste oil of rendered pork from a food processing industry

ExperimentOperating variableResponse yield (%)
Methanol:oil ratio (mol.)Catalyst loading (%)Reaction time (min)
CCD(theoretical)30.554596.14
Validation(actual)30.554595.28 ± 0.15
  1. Optimization criteria: minimize methanol–oil ratio, catalyst loading, reaction time; maximize FAME yield