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Table 3 Composition and characteristics of beers from barley, and sorghum without or with A. oryzae

From: Use of Aspergillus oryzae during sorghum malting to enhance yield and quality of gluten-free lager beers

  Beer from Barley malt Beer from Sorghum malt Beer from Sorghum with A. oryzae Malt
Specific gravity @ 20 °C 1.016 ± 0.01B 1.021 ± 0.01A 1.019 ± 0.01AB
pH 4.08 ± 0.05A 3.96 ± 0.22A 4.00 ± 0.12A
Apparent attenuation (%) 72.76 ± 0.09A 64.35 ± 0.01B 68.05 ± 0.01B
Real attenuation (%) 60.09 ± 0.01A 53.33 ± 0.12B 55.66 ± 0.01AB
Ethanol (%v/v) 5.25 ± 0.07A 4.68 ± 0.05B 5.28 ± 0.02A
FAN (mg/Lt) 56.18 ± 3.45A 59.72 ± 6.13A 66.23 ± 3.64A
Superior alcohols
 Propanol (ppm) 13.78 ± 0.01A 14.40 ± 2.02A 16.31 ± 0.45A
 Isobutanol (ppm) 13.14 ± 0.20A 18.52 ± 8.77A 15.21 ± 0.45A
 Isoamyl alcohol (ppm) 85.55 ± 1.86A 86.34 ± 9.10A 99.16 ± 1.22A
Volatile and ester compounds
 Acetaldehyde (ppm) 3.13 ± 0.69A 2.87 ± 0.52A 1.92 ± 0.51A
 Ethyl acetate (ppm) 13.24 ± 0.20A 7.78 ± 1.70A 14.84 ± 2.39A
 Isoamyl acetate (ppm) 0.977 ± 0.001A 0.648 ± 0.130A 1.28 ± 0.25A
 Ethyl hexanoate (ppm) 0.068 ± 0.001A 0.046 ± 0.040B 0.059 ± 0.010AB
Sulfur compounds
 Hydrogen sulfide (ppb) 26.77 ± 0.69A 19.63 ± 1.88B 3.61 ± 0.19C
 Methanethiol (ppb) 3.13 ± 0.13A 2.18 ± 0.45AB 1.73 ± 0.01B
 Dimethylsulfide (ppb) 43.09 ± 8.29A 63.94 ± 10.93A 62.44 ± 0.96A
 S-methyl acetate (ppb) 24.87 ± 1.45A 18.01 ± 5.04A 16.17 ± 0.51A
VDK compounds
 2,3 Butanedione (ppm) 0.440 ± 0.050A 0.041 ± 0.020B 0.018 ± 0.010B
 2,3 Pentanedione (ppm) 0.240 ± 0.020A 0.033 ± 0.020B 0.008 ± 0.010B
Color
 Color (° EBC) 6.36 ± 0.09A 2.91 ± 0.29B 3.37 ± 0.14B
  1. Mean comparisons with different letter(s) within rows are statistically different (P < 0.05)