Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of the main bioactive pomegranate compounds found in the pomegranate peel (PP), juice (PJ), seed (PS), flower (PF), leaves (PL) and not specified part (NS) and the references, where they were found and/or studied

From: Pomegranate variety and pomegranate plant part, relevance from bioactive point of view: a review

  Alzheimer’s disease Anti-allergic Antianxiety Anticonvulsant Anti-diabetic Anti-inflammatory Antimicrobial Antinonciceptive Anti-tyrosinase Breast cancer Colon cancer Hepatocarcinogenesis Prostate cancer Lung cancer References
Phenolic compounds
  Protocatechuic acidPJ, NS             X    (Poyrazoğlu et al. 2002; Bishayee et al. 2011)
Caffeic acidPJ, NS       X       X    (Bishayee et al. 2011; AlMatar et al. 2019)
Ferrulic acidPP, NS       X       X    (Bishayee et al. 2011; Wang et al. 2014; Hmid et al. 2018)
  Trans-p-coumaric acid NS             X    (Bishayee et al. 2011)
 Unspecified phenols PP               X (Jayakumar et al. 2012)
Unspecified TanninsPP, PL    X X   X X X        (Das and Barman 2012; Ouachrif et al. 2012; Fawole et al. 2012)
Hydrolyzable tannins & derivatives
UnspecifiedNS      X X X   X       (Kutan Fenercioglu et al. 2010; Larrosa et al. 2010)
CorilaginNS       X    X       (Bishayee et al. 2011; Khwairakpam et al. 2018; Zehra et al. 2019)
 Gallagyldilactone PJ X X    X   X   X X X     (Kasimsetty et al. 2010; Yuniarti et al. 2018)
Gallagic acidPJ, PP     X   X X X    X     (Kasimsetty et al. 2010; Heena et al. 2018)
Punicalagins (α and β)PP, PR, NS   X X     X X   X   X X   (Rosas-Burgos et al. 2017; Suman and Bhatnagar 2019)
PunicalinsPJ _     X   X    X X   X   (Kasimsetty et al. 2010; Giamogante et al. 2018)
Gallic acidPP, PJ, NS      X X X   X   X X    (Kasimsetty et al. 2010; Arun and Singh 2012; Fawole et al. 2012; Bishayee et al. 2013; Wang et al. 2014; Banihani et al. 2014; Dludla et al. 2018)
Ellagic acidPP, PJ, PS, NS X X    X X X   X X X X X   (Makino-Wakagi et al. 2012; Wang et al. 2012, 2014; Fawole et al. 2012; Bishayee et al. 2013; Rojanathammanee et al. 2013; Banihani et al. 2014; Tamamm et al. 2018; Yuniarti et al. 2018)
Flavonoids
UnspecifiedPP, PL    X X X X X X     X    (Kutan Fenercioglu et al. 2010; Das and Barman 2012; Ouachrif et al. 2012; Fawole et al. 2012)
CatechinPP        X   X       (Fawole et al. 2012; AlMatar et al. 2019)
EpicatechinPP       X X   X       (Wang et al. 2012; Fawole et al. 2012)
KaempferolPP       X          (Wang et al. 2012)
 Luteolin PJ       X X    X    X   (Lopez-Lazaro 2009; Wang et al. 2012; Rocha et al. 2012)
 Quertecin PP       X          (Wang et al. 2012)
 Rutin PP        X   X       (Fawole et al. 2012; Gullon et al. 2016)
 Cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside PP        X   X       (Fawole et al. 2012)
 Delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside PP        X   X       (Fawole et al. 2012)
Fatty acids
 Octadecatrienoic acids PS       X       X    (Bishayee et al. 2011; Coursodon-Boyiddle et al. 2012)
 Punicic acid PJ, P S      X X     X    X   (Vroegrijk et al. 2011; Coursodon-Boyiddle et al. 2012; Wang et al. 2012; Rocha et al. 2012; Nekooeian et al. 2014; Banihani et al. 2014; Mphahlele et al. 2017)
Other compounds
 17-α-estradiol PS             X    (Bishayee et al. 2011)
 5-hydroxymethylfurfural NS             X    (Bishayee et al. 2011)
 Alkaloids PP       X   X        (Ouachrif et al. 2012)
 Hexahydroxydiphenic acid PJ            X     (Kasimsetty et al. 2010)
 Glycosides PL    X X            (Das and Barman 2012)
 λ-tocopherol PS             X    (Bishayee et al. 2011)
 Quinones PP      X   X         (Ouachrif et al. 2012; Setiadhi and Sufiawati 2017)
 Saponins PP      X   X         (Ouachrif et al. 2012; Govindappa 2015)
 Sterols PS            X     (Bishayee et al. 2011)
  1. PP, Peel; PJ, juice; PS, seed; PF, flower; PL, leaves and NS, Not Specified part