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Table 1 Commercial recombinant human insulin/insulin analogue products and their production host systems

From: Downstream processing of recombinant human insulin and its analogues production from E. coli inclusion bodies

Insulin type Structure Action Host system Manufacturer Brands
Human insulin Identical to native human insulin Fast/short/intermediate/long-acting depending on formulation E. coli Berlin-Chemie Berlinsulin
Bioton Gensulin
Eli Lilly & Co Huminsulin, Humulin
Landsteiner Scientific Bonglixan
Sanofi Insulin Human Winthrop, Insuman
SciGen Ltd Scilin
Tonghua Dongbao Gansulin
H. polymorpha Wockhardt Wosulin
P. pastoris Biocon Insugen
S. cerevisiae Novo Nordisk Actraphane, Actrapid, Insulatard, Mixtard, Monotard, Novolin, Protaphane, Ultratard, Velosulin
Inhalable; Ultra rapid-acting E. coli MannKind Afrezza
Insulin lispro Engineered: inversion of native B28–B29 proline-lysine sequence Fast-acting E. coli Eli Lilly & Co Humalog, Liprolog
Sanofi Admelog
Short-acting E. coli Gan & Lee Prandilin
Insulin glargine Engineered: A 21 asparagine replaced by glycine and B chain elongated by two arginines Long-acting E. coli ACI Limited Glarine
Eli Lilly & Co Abasaglar, Basaglar
Gan & Lee Basalin
Getz Pharma Basagine
Incepta Pharmaceuticals Vibrenta
Merck Lusduna Nexvue
Sanofi Lantus, Optisulin, Toujeo
Wockhardt Glaritus
P. pastoris Biocon Basalog
Insulin aspart Engineered: B28 proline replaced by aspartic acid Fast-acting S. cerevisiae Novo Nordisk NovoRapid, Novolog, Fiasp
Insulin glulisine Engineered: B3 asparagine is replaced by a lysine and B29 lysine is replaced by glutamic acid Fast-acting E. coli Sanofi Apidra
Insulin detemir Engineered: devoid of B30 threonine and a C14 fatty acid is covalently attached to B29 lysine Long-acting S. cerevisiae Novo Nordisk Levemir
Insulin degludec Engineered: devoid of B30 threonine and hexadecanedioic acid via gamma-l-glutamyl spacer is conjugated to B29 lysine Ultra-long acting S. cerevisiae Novo Nordisk Tresiba