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Table 2 Acidogenic fermentation from various types of lignocellulosic biomass wastes and the operating parameters

From: Review and perspectives of enhanced volatile fatty acids production from acidogenic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass wastes

Substrates Pretreatments Chemical compositions Reactor Operation mode VFA yields Product compositions Main bacterial characteristics References
Grass clipping Ultrasound-Ca(OH)2 4 and 32 g/g volatile solids (VS) glucose and xylan released 250 mL, 35 °C, 120 rpm Batch 12d 578 mg/g volatile solids (VS), increase 116% 82% acetic, 4% propionic and 4% butyric acids Bacteria class: Clostridia and Bacteroidia Wang et al. (2019a)
Grass Carbide slag Reduced 6% lignin and 8% hemicellulose 250 mL, 35 °C Batch 220 mg/g volatile solids (VS), increase 38% 78% acetate, 4% propionate and 8% butyrate Clostridium, Bacteroides Tao et al. (2019)
Napier grass Milling 250 mL flasks, 37 °C, 100 rpm, micro O2, Batch 107.25 mg/g volatile solids (VS) 50–70% acetic and 20–50% propionic acids Sawatdeenarunat et al. (2017)
Japanese cedar Vibration milling 2 L, 39 °C, 30–40 rpm, pH 6.5 Semi-continuous 76 mg/g volatile solids (VS) 37% acetic and 60% propionic acids F. succinogenes (cellulolytic bacterium), P. ruminicola (synergistically with cellulolytic bacteria), S. ruminis (propionate-producing) Agematu et al. (2017)
Fallen leaves Lime pretreatments 250-mL flasks with 10% inoculum, 37 °C, pH 8 Batch 5d 1.06 g/g volatile solids (VS), increase 160% 70% acetic and 20% butyric acids Kim et al. (2013)
Sorghum stalks Milling and acid Hemicellulose degraded by 60% 135 mL, 55 °C, Two steps 424 mg/g volatile solids (VS), increase 84% acetate and 116% butyrate 2.17 g/L acetic and 2.07 g/L butyric acids Islam et al. (2018)
Corn stalk Acid pretreatment Hemicellulose reduced by 12%, cellulose increased by 15% 500 mL flask, 50 °C, 15 days, pH 7 Batch 150 mg/g volatile solids (VS) 0.86 g/L formic, 0.59 g/L acetic, 0.62 g/L butyric and 0.64 g/L lactic acid Guo et al. (2011)
Corn stover Hydrothermal Lignin removal of 8% 500 mL, 35 °C Batch 1.4 g/g volatile solids (VS), 3.5 times higher 20% ethanol, 66% acetic, 8% iso-butyric acid Song et al. (2019b)
Corn stover Wet-exploded 3 L, 37 °C, 150 rpm, pH 6.5 Batch 1.14 g/g volatile solids (VS) 50–70% acetate, 20–45% propionate Murali et al. (2017)
Rice straw 1% NaOH 6.5 L, pH 6, HRT 8, 9 days Semi-continuous 1 g/g volatile solids (VS) 40–60% acetate, 20–33% propionate, 12% butyrate Predominant class: Clostridia, Bacteroidia, Bacteroidetes_vadin HA17 and Deltaproteobacteria Lu et al. (2018)
Wheat straw 7.4% Ca(OH)2 Release 0.16 g Hemicellulose/g volatile solids (VS) 600 mL, 35 °C Batch 223 mg/g volatile solids (VS) 60 mg/g volatile solids (VS) acetic, 150 mg/g volatile solids (VS) butyric acid Reilly et al. (2014)
Wheat straw 6 L, lead bed reactor, 37 °C, solid-state Batch 560 mg/g volatile solids (VS) Rouches et al. (2019)
Palm fruit bunch Cutting 40 L leach bed reactor, solid-state Semi-continuous 196.5 mg/gTS Saritpongteeraka et al. (2015)
Xylose Acidic and thermal pretreatments 500 mL, pH 6.5, 30 °C Batch 124 g/g volatile solids (VS), increase 187% Acetate higher than 85% Dominant: Clostridia, related with acidogenic and solventogenic processes Mockaitis et al. (2020)