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Table 3 Advantages, disadvantages, and applications of densification and densification products

From: Densification of agro-residues for sustainable energy generation: an overview

Advantages Disadvantages Applications
Smaller storage space requirement and convenience to use
Briquetting and pelletizing offer an inexpensive form of energy, creates eco-friendly environment, employment, and business opportunities
Composition pellets/briquettes fuels are homogeneous
Fuel pellets allow automation of stoking, thus improve the comfort for the user
Briquetting/pelletizing manufacture fuel with high mechanical strength, uniformity, and heating value than its feedstock
The use of briquettes/pellets in remote areas can reduce the time spent on gathering firewood, and this will reduce the risk associated with collecting firewood and saving the time for other profitable activities
Briquetting and pelletizing preserve wood and preventing the destruction of forests
They are not applicable for the production of liquid fuel
Additional energy input (essentially for drying, pressing, and grinding) increases the cost of production
Household cooking and heating using domestic stoves
As a feedstock for the manufacture of iron and steel through direct reduction route using a tunnel and rotary kilns
Co-fire in boiler, power plant for steam and energy generation
Commercial waste management techniques and control of greenhouse emissions
Food processing, dyeing, bleaching, and textile industries
Generation of heat in the manufacture of clay products;
Employed for generation of gas through Gasification processes
Distilleries, water cleaning applications, restaurants, bakeries, and canteens
Utilized for tobacco curing, oil milling, and tea drying
Nutrient fertilizer and land restoration