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Table 4 Different immobilization techniques for cellulase nanoparticles and their characteristics

From: Current perspective on production and applications of microbial cellulases: a review

Immobilization approaches Characteristics References
Styrene/maleic anhydride copolymer nanoparticles Improved stability against pH changes Wang et al. (2018)
Phyto-silver nanoparticles synthesized using Oxalis stricta plant leaf extract Effective on extracellular fungal amylase and cellulase Singh et al. (2019)
Chitosan–cellulase nanohybrid and immobilization on alginate beads Hydrolysis of ionic liquid pretreated sugarcane bagasse Saha et al. (2019)
Multi-layered magnetic hollow particles Rapid magnetic responsivity, high, bio-activity adsorption ability, and easily separated via magnet from a solution mixture Raza et al. (2019)
Magnetic gold mesoporous silica nanoparticles core shell Improvement of enzymatic activity and thermal stability Poorakbar et al. (2018)
Reusable magnetic combi-CLEA cross-linked enzyme aggregate Shows remarkable increase in the half-life of all three enzymes, bioethanol concentration increases to 1.82-fold as compared to free enzyme Perwez et al. (2019)
Co-immobilized magnetic nanobiocatalyst: simultaneous immobilization of Pectinex® and Celluclast® amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle (MNPs): cross-linking by glutaraldehyde Antioxidant extraction from waste fruit peels Nadar and Rathod (2019)
Cellulase 32 immobilized magnetic nanoparticles (cellulase@MNPs) Biomass hydrolysis by immobilized cellulase with 425 sonications found more effective than without sonication Ladole et al. (2017)
Chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with APTES conjugated cellulase Most effective for polyphenol release and the transformation of glycosidic to aglycosidic form of quercetin Kumar et al. (2019)
Fe3O4-NH2@4-arm-PEG-NH2, a novel magnetic four-arm polymer–nanoparticle composite Showed wide pH and temperature ranges, high operational stability, and good storage stability Han et al. (2018)
Magnetic and silica nanoparticles Improve catalytic efficiency of Trichoderma reesei cellulase for enhanced saccharification Grewal et al. (2017)
pH-responsive lignin-based magnetic nanoparticles Cellulase recycling and application of industrial lignin and increase the extra value Dong et al. (2019)
Iron-tolerant Pseudomonas stutzeri biosynthesized magnetic nanoparticles Photo-catalytically active and increased thermal stability Desai and Pawar (2020)
Amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles An activity-tunable biocatalyst for extraction of lipids from microalgae Chen et al. (2018b)
Polymethacrylate particles (ICP) as the biocarrier grafted with ethylenediamine (EDA) and glutaraldehyde (GA) for the hydrolysis of carboxymethyl cellulose Chan et al. (2019)
Polyvinyl alcohol/Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles Degrade microcrystalline cellulose Liao et al. (2010)
Fe3O4 NPs Magnetically recoverable biocatalyst for the decomposition of corncob Zhang et al. (2016)
MnO2 NPs Hydrolysis of agricultural waste for bioethanol production Cherian et al. (2015)
Covalent immobilization on a uniform, monodisperse polyurea microspheres Improve catalytic activity and stability Sui et al. (2019)
MgO–Fe3O4 linked cellulase enzyme complex Improves the hydrolysis of cellulose from Chlorella sp. CYB2 Velmurugan and Incharoensakdi (2017)
Fe3O4 nanoparticles with copper as ligand Biocatalytic applications Abbaszadeh and Hejazi (2019)
Biobased magnetic hollow particles (BMHPs) with glutaraldehyde via Schiff base reaction to produce multi-layered magnetic hollow particles (MMHPs) Pens up a new strategy to immobilize enzymes, and the created MMHPs constitute a promising platform for immobilizing enzymes and other bio-macromolecules Raza et al. (2019)
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (CMC) and Cu2O nanoparticles Nanocomposites exhibit photocatalytic activity to the Methyl Orange oxidation in the presence of H2O2 and air oxidation Spiridonov et al. (2020)
Bleached eucalyptus fibers as cellulose source and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) Exist a positive linear relationship between the magnetic properties and the loading degree of the fibers Pineda et al. (2020)
Cellulose–polyaniline–silver nanoparticles composites To produce self-supported films constituted of polyaniline and silver nanoparticles Oliveira et al. (2018a)
Carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized cobalt nanoparticles (CMC-Co) catalyst The effects of catalyst amount, a combination of the two pollutants in a solution, and repeatability tests were also performed and results were discussed Kamal et al. (2019)