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Table 1 Relevant compounds produced in Zymomonas mobilis (studies performed in the last 5 years), and its industrialization status

From: Zymomonas mobilis as an emerging biotechnological chassis for the production of industrially relevant compounds

Product Straina Substrate/precursor Condition (pH, temperature) Fermentation strategyb Titer (g L−1) Productivity (g L−1 h−1) Reference Industrialization status
Ethanol TMY-FHPX Xylose pH 6 32 °C Batch-VHG 136 2.3 (Wang et al. 2016) DuPont implemented an industrial scale process for cellulosic bioethanol production from corn stover, currently licensed to China and Macedonia
DSM 473 Glucose pH 5.5 30 °C Batch 50 0.40 (Palamae et al. 2020)
2 cycle repeated batch 46 0.68
3 cycle repeated batch 60 0.64
ZMA7-2 Glucose 30 °C Microplate 50 0.83 (Shui et al. 2015)
ZMA7-3 50 0.83
ZMA7-2 Food waste pH 4 30 °C Bench scale 100 2.3 (Ma et al. 2016)
Flask scale 98 2.1
ZMA-142 Glucose + sodium acetate pH 5 30 °C Bench scale 61 1.7 (Liu et al. 2017)
ZMA-167 47 0.99
ATCC 29501 Glucose pH 5.5 35 °C Batch-VHG 75 4.7 (Ajit et al. 2017)
ATCC 29501 Glucose pH 7 room temperature PVA-immobilized cells VHG + VMD 127 6 (Zhang et al. 2017)
8b Lignocellulosic hydrolysates pH 5.8 30 °C VHG 35 1.8 (Li et al. 2019)
Levan CCT 4494 Sucrose pH 7 30 °C Continuous fermentation with immobilized cells 113 6.3 (Lorenzetti et al. 2015) Real Biotech Co started an industrial process
CCT 4494 Sucrose pH 4 30 °C Repeated batch with immobilized cells 21 0.88 (Santos and Cruz 2016)
Levan (cont.) CCT 4494 Sucrose pH 7 40 °C Repeated batch with immobilized cells 32 1.3 (Santos and Cruz 2017)  
PTCC 1718 Sucrose 28 °C Flask scale 57 1.2 (Taran et al. 2019)
Sorbitol and Gluconic acid (GA) ATCC 29501 Fructose + Glucose pH 6.4 39 °C Bench scale (200 mL) 66 (sorbitol) 70 (GA) 2.7 (sorbitol) 2.9 (GA) (Folle et al. 2018) Low Technology readiness levels (TRL) Weakness: simultaneous production of two products Solution: development of an efficient and cost-effective separation and purification process
Strengths: produced at high titers
ZM4 gnlΔ Fructose + Glucose pH 6 30 °C BiotransformationFlask scale 65 (sorbitol) 67 (GA) 2.7 (sorbitol) 2.8 (GA) (Alvin et al. 2017)
2,3-butanodiol 9C Glucose + Xylose pH 5.8 30 °C Flask scale 15 0.31 (Yang et al. 2016b) Low TRL Weakness: early stage of development Strengths: GRAS microorganism; reduced aeration requirement; limited by-product formation
Glucose 13 0.54
Zmo-BDOI Glucose + Xylose pH 5.8 30 °C Fed-batch 120 0.13 (Zhang et al. 2019b)
Isobutanol Zmo-IBA1 Glucose pH 6 30 °C Batch in STR with gas stripping 6 0.08 (Liu et al. 2020b) Low TRL Weakness: early stage of development Strengths: GRAS microorganism; abundant pyruvate biosynthesis; limited by-product formation
ZMQ3-A4 Glucose 30 °C Flask scale 4 0.33 (Qiu et al. 2020)
  1. aTMY-FHPX: CP4 derivative strain that heterologous express xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, and transketolase and yfdZ/metB operon from E. coli, thioesterase from Acinetobacter baylyi, fatty acyl-CoA reductases from jojoba, and wax ester synthase/acyl-CoA–diacyl glycerol acyltransferase from A. baylyi; ZMA7-2 and ZMA7-3: mutated version of ZM4 by adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) with high tolerance to acetic acid; ZMA-142 and ZMA-167: mutated versions of ATCC31823 by ALE and chemical mutagenesis with high tolerance to acetate; 9C: 8b derivative strain with chloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance genes cured; ZM4 gnlΔ: ZM4 derivative strain with gluconolactonase inactivated and chloramphenicol resistance genes cured; Zmo-BDOI: modified version of 9C strain. This strain was constructed by integration of the genes responsible for 2,3-butanediol biosynthetic pathway in a strain with the pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) gene deleted (Zmo-pdcI strain); Zmo-IBA1 modified version of 9C strain. The strain was constructed by integration of two plasmids holding the isobutanol biosynthetic genes in Zmo-pdcI strain, ZMQ3-A4 ZM4 derivative strain through integration of kdcA gene from Lactococcus lactis in Z. mobilis genome and expression of the isobutanol biosynthetic genes. bVHG very high gravity; PVA polyvinyl alcohol, VMD vacuum membrane distillation, STR stirred-tank reactor