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Table 1 Proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles of raw spent hen and meat

From: Conventional use and sustainable valorization of spent egg-laying hens as functional foods and biomaterials: A review

Sample Moisture (%) Protein (%) Fat (%) Ash (%) Fatty acid profile Major amino acid References
Spent hen carcassa 59.8 18.5 14.9 5.3    
Whole spent henb 58.2 17.9 19.1 4.5   Glu, Gly, Asp, Leu, Arg, Pro, Lys Freeman et al. (2009a, b)
Whole spent henc 67.7 17.1 14.1 2.1    Zubair (2017)
Whole spent hend 60.1 21.4 16.3 2.2 SFA (28%), MUFA (50%), PUFA (22%)   Safder et al. (2019a, b)
Spent hen breast meat 72.0 22.9 1.5 1.5   Glu, Leu, Arg, Lys, Asp Okarini et al. (2013)
Spent hen breast meat 73.9 21.7 3.8 1.3 SFA (38%), MUFA (33%), PUFA (29%)   Semwogerere et al. (2019)
  1. SFA saturated fatty acids, MUFA mono-unsaturated fatty acids, PUFA poly-unsaturated fatty acids
  2. aSpent hen carcass (without feather, head, feet, and viscera), analyzed by our lab
  3. bWhole spent hen (with feather)
  4. cWhole spent hen (including skin, bone, muscle, leg, and gizzard)
  5. dWhole spent hen (no indication on body components)