Skip to main content

Table 3 Biomaterial applications of spent hen proteins and lipids

From: Conventional use and sustainable valorization of spent egg-laying hens as functional foods and biomaterials: A review

Proteins/lipids Application (Products) Processing conditions for preparing biomaterials Product characterization References
Muscle proteins Wood adhesive - Modified by 3% sodium dodecyl sulfate or 3 M urea - The modification promoted protein unfolding, exposing more secondary structures that strengthen protein-wood bonding
- Interaction between proteins and modification agents enhanced mechanical interlocking
- The prepared adhesives can be applicable in both dry and wet environments
Wang and Wu (2012)
Muscle proteins Bionanocomposite film - Compression molding using glycerol (plasticizer), chitosan (cross-linker), and nanoclay (nanoparticles) - The exfoliated bionanocomposite film had improved thermal, thermomechanical, and barrier properties, with possible uses as food packaging materials Zubair et al. (2019)
Collagen (Gelatin) Hydrogel - Gelatin was made from extracted spent hen collagen
- Gelatin scaffold was formed through crosslinking by adding glutaraldehyde
- Properties of gelatin scaffold: porosity (90%), pore size (range of 104–244 µm), and water uptake (1149%)
- The scaffold promoted proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts for wound healing
Esparza et al. (2018)
Lipids Plasticizer (Bio-epoxy) - Lipids were extracted using supercritical CO2
- Bio-epoxy was produced by epoxidation of the extracted lipids
- Spent hen lipid-derived bio-epoxy materials were produced Safder et al. (2019a, b)
Lipids Polymer precursor (ethenolysis) - Ethenolysis was achieved by a microwave-assisted solvent-free approach with catalysts - Spent hen lipids as a renewable lipidic source for ethenolysis Pradhan et al. (2020)
Lipids Bionanocomposite film - Compression molding using spent hen-derived fatty acids and nanoclay - Produced a lipid-based bionanocomposite film with enhanced thermal stability and flame retardancy compared to neat homopolymer Safder et al. (2020)
Feather Adsorbent - Feather was functionalized with silver nanoparticles - Enhanced adsorption capacity of rhodamine B by 30 folds Azeez et al. (2020)
Feather Adsorbent - Treatment with hydrogen peroxide - Effectively removed hazardous acid dye Amido Black 10B from aqueous solutions Mittal et al. (2013)