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Table 1 Syngas fermentation parameters and ethanol yields

From: Development and evaluation of a functional bioreactor for CO fermentation into ethanol

Experimental conditions Concentration Reference
Reactor Microbe Cell density Syngas Temp.  °C pH  
CSTR (3 L) C. ljungdahlii, ATCC#55380 100 % CO 37 4.0–5.0 Ethanol: 0.17–1.17 g/L; acetic acid: 8.50–23.68 g/L This study
Two stage: 1 L CSTR and 4 L bubble column C. Ljungdahlii, ATCC#55383 10 g/L 60 % CO, 35 % H2, and 5 % CO2 37 5.5 (stage 1)
4.4–4.8 (stage 2)
Ethanol: 20.7 g/L Richter et al. (2013)
CSTR (2 L) C. ljungdahlii, ATCC#55383 2.34 g/L 55 % CO, 20 % H2, 10 % CO2 and 15 % argon 37 4.0 Ethanol: 6.50 g/L Acetate: 5.43 g/L Mohammadi et al. (2012)
CSTR C. ljungdahlii, ATCC#55383   55 % CO, 5 % CO2, 20 % H2, and 15 % Ar    Ethanol: 0.55 g/L, Acetate: 1.3 g/L Younesi et al. (2005)
CSTR (20 L) C. ljungdahlii, ATCC#55383 2.0 55 % CO, 20 % H2, 10 % CO2, and 15 % Ar 37 4.5 Ethanol and Acetate: 11.0 g/L Younesi et al. (2006)
HFM-BR (8 L working volume) C. carboxidivorans P7 50 % CO, 30 % H2,20 % CO2 37 4.5–5.5 Ethanol: 23.93 g/L Shen et al. (2014)
HBM-BR (3.3 L working volume) A. bacchi strain CP15 (56 %) and Clostridium propionicum (34 %)   20–39 % CO, 24–25 % CO2, 10–43 % H2, 10–12 % N2 37 Ethanol: 8 g/L Liu et al. (2014)
HFM-R (125 mL) C. ljungdahlii, ATCC#55383 50 % CO, 30 % H2, and 20 % CO2 35 Ethanol: 6 g/L; Acetate: 2.3 g/L Lee (2010)
Gas lift reactor Eubacterium limosum 0.75 g/L 100 % CO 37 6.8 Butyrate, acetate, Ethanol: 1.75 g/L Chang et al. (1998)
  1. CSTR Continuous stirred tank reactor; HFM-BR Hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor