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Table 2 Crude glycerol thermal conversion

From: Conversion of residues and by-products from the biodiesel industry into value-added products

Process Co-substrate Glycerol concentration Conditions Products References
Batch pyrolysis Swine manure 1:3 swine manure:crude glycerol 340 °C for 15 min Bio-oil (Cheng et al. 2014b)
Co-gasification Olive kernel 49 wt% 750–850 °C
Air ratio: 0.2–0.4
Syngas (10.5–52.2)
Bio-oil (2.4–19.5)
Biochar (37.9–78.3)
(Skoulou and Zabaniotou 2013)
Co-gasification Hardwood chips 20 (wt%) 850 °C
Air ratio: 0.293
CO (19.73 % v)
CH4 (3.82 % v)
H2 (19.38 % v)
CO2 (11.67 % v)
(Wei et al. 2011)
Pyrolysis Greek lignite 15–20 wt% 850 °C H2 (65.44 v/v %) (Manara and Zabaniotou 2013)
Slow co-pyrolysis Corn straw 1:1 glycerol:corn straw 30 °C/min, 550 °C Syngas (25 %)
Bio-oil (55 %)
Biochar (15 %)
(Delgado et al. 2013)
Co-gasification Physic nut waste (pnw)
Palm shell waste (psw)
30 % 700–900 °C
Air ratio: 0–0.6
pnw Syngas (95.41 wt%)
psw Syngas (94.70 wt%)
(Sricharoenchaikul and Atong 2012)
Pyrolysis Olive kernel 25 wt% 720 °C H2 (45 %) (Skoulou et al. 2012)
Microwave plasma gasification 100 % Air ratio: 0–0.4
2 kW microwave generator
H2 (57 %)
CO (35 %)
(Yoon et al. 2013)
Catalytic supercritical water gasification 30 wt% glycerol 600 °C at 300 bar H2,
CO,
CO2,
CH4
(Tapah et al. 2014)
Supercritical water gasification 7 wt% 500 °C, 45 MPa H2 (27.9 %) (Yang et al. 2013)
Gasification 60 % 950–1500 °C H2 (38–42 %)
CO (39–41 %)
CO2 (9–15 %)
CH4 (1–3 %)
(Yoon et al. 2010)