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Table 2 Peak positions of various modes of vibration in the FT-IR spectra of lignin, carboxymethylated lignin and CML–T composites during sol–gel reaction

From: Synthesis and characterization of crystalline carboxymethylated lignin–TEOS nanocomposites for metal adsorption and antibacterial activity

Chemical bond Chemical structure Wavenumbers (cm−1)
C–C stretch Aromatic ring 1595.83 cm−1
C–C stretch Aromatic ring 1412.70 cm−1
C–stretch Carbonyl group 1096.18
=C–H Alkenes 699 and 767
–C≡C–H or C–H bend Different functional groups of lignin 620
C–H stretch Alkanes 2929.40
O–H stretch Phenolic group and carboxyl 3500
C=O stretch Carboxylic acid 1780
–C=C– stretch Alkenes 1634.05
–C=C– Alkenes 1634.05
C–C stretch Aromatic ring 1431.12
Carboxyl ring 1412.70
=C–H bend and O–H bend Carboxyl ring 800 and 996
O–H stretch   3441
–C=C– stretch Alkenes 1641.74
C–C stretch Aromatics group 1561.93
C–H bend Alkanes 1453.22
C–H group Aromatic ring 849.19
=C–H bend Alkenes 849.19
O–H stretch Phenolic group and carboxyl 3456.01