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Table 5 Examples of whole-cell biocatalytic reactions in DES

From: Recent progress on deep eutectic solvents in biocatalysis

Microbial DES Substrate Product Comments References
Baker’s yeast ChCl/Gly (1:2) Ethyl acetoacetate Ethyl 3-hydroxybutyrate Increasing the DES content switched the enantioselectivity Maugeri and de Maria (2014)
Acetobacter sp. CCTCC M209061 ChCl/U (1:2) 3-Chloropropiophenone (S)-3-Chloro-1-phenylpropanol Combination of ILs and DESs in the biphasic system effectively improved the substrate concentration Xu et al. (2015)
Recombinant E. coli overexpressing ADH ChCl/Gly (1:2) Ketones Alcohols The e.e. of many aromatic substrates increased by the addition of DES Muller et al. (2015)
Baker’s yeast ChCl/Gly (1:2) Aryl-containing ketones Aryl-containing alcohols (S)-oxidoreductases of baker’s yeast was possibly inhibited by DES Vitale et al. (2016)
Recombinant E. coli CCZU-T15 ChCl/Gly (1:2) 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate Addition of Tween-80 improved significantly substrate concentration from 2 to 3 M Dai et al. (2017)
Lysinibacillus fusiformis CGMCC 1347 ChOAc/U (1:1)
ChOAc/EG (1:1)
ChCl/Lac (4:1)
ChCl/Raf (11:2)
Isoeugenol Vanillin NADESs were first used in whole-cell biocatalysis Yang et al. (2017)