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Table 1 Ethanol fermentation by Z. mobilis in lignocellulosic hydrolysates compared to pure sugars

From: Progress and perspective on lignocellulosic hydrolysate inhibitor tolerance improvement in Zymomonas mobilis

Carbon source Pretreatment method Z. mobilis strain Fermentation Sugar (g/L) Inhibitors (g/L) Ethanol titer (g/L) References
Glucose   ZM4 Batch fermentation in 2.5-L bioreactor 100.0   44.9 Zhao et al. (2014)
Xylose   TSH-01 2-L bioreactor 80.0   > 30.0 Feng et al. (2012)
Glucose and xylose   ZM4 (pZB5) Batch fermentation in 2-L fermentor Glucose: 65.0
Xylose: 65.0
  62.0 Joachimsthal et al. (1999)
Glucose, xylose, and mannose   Z. mobilis [sucZE2::manA, pZA22-xtR] 200-mL bioreactor Glucose: 20.0
Xylose: 20.0
Mannose: 20.0
  26.5 Yanase et al. (2012)
Glucose, xylose, and arabinose   AX101 BioStat-Q fermentors Glucose: 40.0
Xylose: 40.0
Arabinose: 20.0
  42.0 Mohagheghi et al. (2002)
Corn stover DA 8b 500-mL bioreactor Glucose: 14.5
Xylose: 90.9
Arabinose: 11.1
Galactose: 7.0
Acetic acid: 5.9
Furfural: 5.2
5-HMF: 0.2
> 60.0 Schell et al. (2016)
Corn stover DA with NH4OH-treated 8b 250-mL flasks Glucose: 31.4
Xylose: 85.7
Fructose: 4.2
Arabinose: 11.2
Galactose: 6.6
Acetic acid: 16.3
HMF: 3.7
Furfural: 2.3
> 48.0a Jennings and Schell (2011)
Corn stover DA 8b BioStat-Q fermenters Glucose: 16.0
Xylose: 69.0
Acetic acid: 11.0 36.6b Mohagheghi et al. (2004)
Corn stover AFEX followed autoclaving 2302 500-mL bioreactor Glucose: 63.9
Xylose: 31.7
Furfural: 6.5
5-HMF: 0.1
Vanillin: 21.5
Syringaldehyde: 1.3
39.1 Serate et al. (2015)
Switchgrass AFEX followed autoclaving 2302 500-mL bioreactor Glucose: 59.1
Xylose: 31.2
Furfural: 5.2
5-HMF: 0.1
Vanillin: 11.6
Syringaldehyde: 1.0
38.3 Serate et al. (2015)
Corn stover DASE ZM401 Batch fermentation in 2.5-L bioreactor Glucose: 80.00
Xylose: 33.00
Furfural: 0.49
HMF: 0.28
Acetic acid: 0.66
> 27.5 Zhao et al. (2014)
Corn stover DDAP ZM4 3-L fermentor Glucose: 58.36 Furfura: 0.26
HMF: 0.29
Formic acid: 0.92
15.0 Dong et al. (2013)
Corn stover DA TSH-01 2-L bioreactor Glucose: 5.8
Xylose: 18.2
Arabinose: 1.1
Acetic acid: 7.5
Formic acid: 1.2
Furfural: 0.6
> 30.0 Feng et al. (2012)
Coniferous trees DA Z. mobilis [sucZE2::manA, pZA22-xtR] Continuous fermentation Laboratory-scale bioreactor Glucose: 68.5
Xylose: 14.3
Mannose: 22.4
  37.3 Yanase et al. (2012)
Wheat straw DA ZM4 (pZB5) Batch fermentation in 100-mL flasks Glucose: 23.3
Xylose: 19
Arabinose: 3.0
Acetate: 3.1
Formate: 0.6
Levulinic acid: 0.7
HMF: 0.08
Furfural: 0.67
13.8 Jeon et al. (2010)
Bagasse DA ZM4 (pZB5) Batch fermentation in 100-mL flasks Glucose: 26.9
Xylose: 18.2
Arabinose: 2.8
Acetate: 4.1
Formate: 0.7
Levulinic acid: 0.8
HMF: 0.1
Furfural: 0.74
17.7 Jeon et al. (2010)
Sorghum straw DA ZM4 (pZB5) Batch fermentation in 100-mL flasks Glucose: 22.0
Xylose: 16.9
Arabinose: 3.7
Acetate: 2.3
Formate: 1.2
Levulinic acid: 2.6
HMF: 0.6
Furfural: 0.5
10.6 Jeon et al. (2010)
Sugarcane tops DA ZM4 (pZB5) Batch fermentation in 100-mL flasks Glucose: 22.3
Xylose: 18.7
Arabinose: 3.1
Acetate: 2.1
Formate: 0.2
Levulinic acid: 0.2
HMF: 0.14
Furfural: 0.14
10.3 Jeon et al. (2010)
Arundo donax DA ZM4 (pZB5) Batch fermentation in 100-mL flasks Glucose: 17.7
Xylose: 23.3
Arabinose: 2.2
Acetate: 4.8
Formate: 0.5
Levulinic acid: 0.2
HMF: 0.04
Furfural: 0.74
12.3 Jeon et al. (2010)
Oil mallee DA ZM4 (pZB5) Batch fermentation in 100-mL flasks Glucose: 10.6
Xylose: 3.4
Arabinose: 5.0
Acetate: 0.7
Formate: 0.5
Levulinic acid: 0.7
HMF: 0.05
Furfural: 0.96
3.8 Jeon et al. (2010)
Pine DA ZM4 (pZB5) Batch fermentation in 100-mL flasks Glucose: 10.6
Xylose: 19.7
Arabinose: 1.5
Acetate: 1.8
Formate: 0.6
Levulinic acid: 0.4
HMF: 0.14
Furfural: 0.15
0.2 Jeon et al. (2010)
Eucalyptus DA ZM4 (pZB5) Batch fermentation in 100-mL flasks Glucose: 8.9
Xylose: 14.6
Arabinose: 0.3
Acetate: 3.4
Formate: 0.3
Levulinic acid: 0.2
Furfural: 0.2
2.3 Jeon et al. (2010)
Sugar cane bagasse 6% NaOH/15% peracetic acid CP4 (pZB5) SSCF in 250-mL flask    21.1 Teixeira et al. (2000)
Hybrid poplar wood 6% NaOH/15% peracetic acid CP4 (pZB5) SSCF in 250-mL flask    21.3 Teixeira et al. (2000)
Rice straw Concentrated acid CP4 (pZB5) Batch fermentation in 125-mL flasks Glucose: 76.0
Xylose: 33.8
  44.3 Krishnan et al. (2000)
Corn fiber DA CP4 (pZB5)     22.6 Bothast et al. (1999)
  1. DA dilute acid, DASE dilute acid steam explosion, STEX steaming or steam explosion, AFEX ammonia fiber explosion, DDAP dry dilute acid pretreatment, SSF simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, ASSF advanced solid-state fermentation technology, SSCF simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, 5-HMF 5-hydroxymethyl furfural
  2. a, bEthanol titers in these two studies were calculated from the reported ethanol yield of 80%a and 85%b based on the maximum theoretical yield of total amount of glucose and xylose to ethanol