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Table 2 Comparison of glycerol consumption and succinate production in different culture in 1.5-L bioreactor

From: Production of succinate from simply purified crude glycerol by engineered Escherichia coli using two-stage fermentation

Culture B-1 B-2 B-3
Aerobic stage
 Carbon sources (g/L) Glycerol 50a; ammonium acetate 10 Glycerol 50b; ammonium acetate 10 Glycerol 50c; ammonium acetate 10
 Time (h) 38 36 28
 Aeration rate in induction stage (vvm) 1.5 1.5 1.5
  μmax (batch)/(h) 0.184 0.203 0.211
 Maximum cell concentration (g DCW/L) 10.9 10.6 7.7
Anaerobic stage
 Time (h) 93 95 103
 Final concentration of succinate (mmol/L) 50.3 566.0 615.9
 Final concentration of acetate (mmol/L) 30.3 20.8 8.6
 Glycerol consumption (mmol/L) 54.1 583.3 702.8
 Average specific succinate productivity (μmol g/DCW/h) 49.6 562.0 773.2
 Average specific glycerol consumption rate (μmol g/DCW/h) 53.3 579.3 882.4
 Yield of succinate in anaerobic stage (mol/mol) 0.93 0.97 0.88
  1. The anaerobic stage lasted 72 h
  2. aCrude glycerol without simple purification was used as carbon source and the concentration of glycerol reached 50 g/L
  3. bSimply purified crude glycerol was used as carbon source and the concentration of glycerol reached 50 g/L
  4. cPure glycerol concentration reached 50 g/L