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Table 2 Comparatively efficient microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from whey and whey-derived products a)

From: Production of biodegradable microbial polymers from whey

Substrate Type of cultures/producing strain Culture method Type of PHA Volumetric productivity, g/L/h References
Lactose (Equimolar mixtures of glucose and galactose) Pure culture/Pseudomonas cepacia ATCC 17759 Shaking flask PHB 0.18 Young et al. 1994
Lactose whey supernatant Pure culture/Methylobacterium sp. ZP24 Shaking flask, Bioreactor, Fed-Batch PHB 0.08
0.09
Yellore and Desai 1998;
Nath et al. 2008
Dairy waste Pure culture/Bacillus megaterium SRKP-3 Bioreactor, Fed-Batch PHB 0.31 Ram Kumar Pandian et al. 2010
Enzymatically hydrolysed whey permeate + 3HVb and 4HBc precursors Pure culture/Haloferax mediterranei DSM 1411 Bioreactor, Fed-Batch P-(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB) 0.14 Koller et al. 2007,
Koller et al. 2012
Whey powder supernatant + additives Pure culture/Alcaligenes latus ATCC 29714 Shaking flask, Bioreactor, Batch PHB 0.11 Berwig et al. 2016
Hydrolysed whey permeate + additives Pure culture/Cupriavidus necator (Ralstonia eutropha DSM 545) Bioreactor, Fed-Batch P-(3HB-co-3HV) 0.17 Marangoni et al. 2002
Hydrolysed whey powder supernatant + additives Pure culture/Haloferax mediterranei ATCC 33500 Bioreactor, Batch P-(3HB-co-3HV) 0.16 Pais et al. 2016
Fermented whey powder permeate MMC d/Undefined Bioreactor, Fed-Batch P-3(HB-co-HV) 0.56 Duque et al. 2014
Fermented whey supernatant MMC/Undefined Bioreactor, Fed-Batch PHB/P-3(HB-co-HV) 0.45 Colombo et al. 2016
Processed whey powder solution Engineered culture/rec. Escherichia coli CGSC 4401, harbouring pJC4 (Alcaligenes latus PHA biosynthesis genes) Bioreactor, Fed-Batch PHB 1.42
2.57
4.60
1.35
Ahn et al. 2000a, Ahn et al. 2001,
Park et al. 2002
Hydrolysed whey permeate + additives Engineered culture/rec. Cupriavidus necator mRePT (E. coli lactose degradation genes) Bioreactor, Batch PHB 0.70 Povolo et al. 2010
  1. aData summarised in recent specialised reviews (Amaro et al. 2019; Koller, 2016)
  2. b,cP3-Hydroxyvalerate (HV) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (HB), precursors pentanoic acid and γ-butyrlactone, respectively
  3. dMixed microbial cultures, including consortia of activated sludge to produce volatile fatty acids, the precursors for PHAs’ biosynthesis