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Table 3 Surface energy parameters for biomass, control adsorbents and polymeric beads

From: Surface energetics to assess influence of biomass-type and biomass–adsorbent interactions in expanded beds

  Surface energy parameters (mJ m-2)
Material γLW γ+ γ γAB γSTotal ΔGsws
Biomass
 E. coli 32.70 1.40 51.80 17.03 49.73 31.01
 B. subtilis 44.00 0.10 59.20 4.87 48.87 42.35
 S. cerevisiae 27.90 4.40 51.50 30.11 58.01 24.36
 CHO 33.60 1.20 52.10 15.81 49.41 30.92
Control
 Sepharose Q 22.30 2.56 71.39 27.06 49.36 46.90
 Sepharose DEAE 27.02 2.36 65.20 24.81 51.82 41.95
 Sepharose SP 26.80 1.90 68.11 22.75 49.55 46.52
 Sepharose Phenyl 26.69 1.63 69.96 21.34 48.03 49.53
Polymeric material
 Alginate 23.32 1.05 79.69 18.30 41.61 62.37
 Agar 22.18 1.50 78.09 21.65 43.83 57.94
 Cellulose 22.93 1.48 76.97 21.33 44.26 57.08
 Sepharose 4B 27.88 2.78 61.92 26.22 54.10 37.41
 Fastline Agarose 24.69 1.57 73.46 21.45 46.14 53.32
 Sephacryl S 400 22.06 1.96 75.21 24.30 46.37 52.89
 Carrageenan 24.64 4.21 56.55 30.84 55.48 29.45
 Dextran (PD 10) 29.23 0.31 78.45 9.92 39.16 67.29
 Polyacrylamide 27.50 0.25 82.18 9.12 36.62 72.37
 Polyvinylpyrrolidone 32.55 0.05 79.54 3.98 36.53 72.55
 Phenolic beads 33.99 0.11 75.55 5.81 39.80 66.01
 Supelite™ DAX-8 35.75 0.21 71.06 7.73 43.48 58.63
 Poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) 35.79 0.15 72.10 6.68 42.47 60.65
 Poly(ethyl methacrylate) 28.13 0.07 85.64 4.78 32.91 79.78
 Chitosan 35.61 0.14 72.57 6.47 42.08 61.43
 Glass 33.15 0.98 46.20 13.49 46.64 25.98
 Stainless steel 40.94 0.00 5.53 0.32 41.26 − 59.75
 Polystyrene 38.90 0.00 2.83 0.00 38.90 − 72.94
 Toyopearl HW-65 22.02 5.56 59.59 36.41 58.43 28.74
 Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) 27.34 0.09 3.89 1.19 28.53 − 59.09
 Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) 24.56 0.00 0.03 0.00 24.56 − 98.58
 Silica 42.39 0.81 55.84 13.45 55.84 33.43
 Ceramic Hydroxyapatite Type 1 28.34 0.00 89.71 0.00 28.34 88.46
 Ceramic Hydroxyapatite Type 2 26.65 0.44 80.69 11.87 38.52 68.56
 Ceramic Fluoroapatite Type 1 26.04 0.41 82.10 11.55 37.59 70.42
 Ceramic Fluoroapatite Type 2 24.12 1.24 76.75 19.53 43.65 58.30