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Table 1 Briquetting machine with their features, merits, and demerits

From: Densification of agro-residues for sustainable energy generation: an overview

Machine type Image Features Merits Demerits References
Piston press Feedstock is compressed into a die by a to and fro moving ram
Extrusion is done by the reciprocating piston
Produced briquettes are usually with a concentric hole
High-pressure type
Efficient and uniform combustion due to larger surface area
Robust with a reputation of long working life
They are simply maintained
Less wear and tear
Power consumption is minimal
Require frequent maintenance
Cannot be used to manufacture carbonized briquettes
Produced briquettes are not homogeneous
Sharma et al. (2015), Young and Khennas (2003), Ghaffar et al. (2015)
Screw press Continuously extrude feedstock via an externally heated taper dye
Extrusion is done using a specially designed screw
Produced briquettes are completely solid
Regular, homogeneous, and can withstand greater impact force without crumble
High-pressure type
Generate less noise
Used for both carbonized and non-carbonized briquettes
Produced briquettes of high quality
Briquettes are homogeneous and suitable for gasifier
High tear and wear
High power consumption
Required specific feedstock properties
Tuates et al. (2016a), Grover and Mishra (1996a), Young and Khennas (2003), Ghaffar et al. (2015)
With permission
Hydraulic piston press Driven by an electric motor via a hydraulic system
low-pressure type
Light and compacted
It can briquettes feedstock with higher moisture content
Slower with lower outputs
Usually have a smaller bulk density
Grover and Mishra (1996a), Young and Khennas (2003), Shuma and Madyira (2019)