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Table 1 Esterification of BDO and LA catalyzed by various catalysts

From: Enzymatic synthesis of a novel solid–liquid phase change energy storage material based on levulinic acid and 1,4-butanediol

  Entry Catalyst Monoester content (%) Diester content (%)
Chemical catalyst 1 H2SO4 7.26 ± 1.23 73.33 ± 0.96
2 Amberlyst-15 3.26 ± 0.95 47.07 ± 1.21
Biological catalyst 3 Novozym 435 6.92 ± 0.82 85.81 ± 0.81
4 Candida sp. 99-125 12.17 ± 1.25 1.32 ± 0.92
5 Lipozyme TLIM 5.83 ± 1.31 21.91 ± 1.43
  1. Reaction conditions: 1—0.22 mol LA, 0.1 mol BDO, 1%wt H2SO4, 90 °C, 3 h, 200 rpm. 2—0.22 mol LA, 0.1 mol BDO, 5%wt Amberlyst-15,90 °C, 7 h, 200 rpm. 3—0.22 mol LA, 0.1 mol BDO, 5%wt Novozym 435, 50 °C, 7 h, 200 rpm. 4—0.22 mol LA, 0.1 mol BDO, 5%wt Candida sp.99-125, 50 °C, 7 h, 200 rpm. 5—0.22 mol LA, 0.1 mol BDO, 5%wt Lipozyme TLIM, 50 °C, 7 h, 200 rpm