Biodegradation of malachite green by a novel copper-tolerant Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense strain GGUPV1 isolated from copper mine waste water
© Chaturvedi and Verma. 2015
Received: 30 May 2015
Accepted: 29 September 2015
Published: 26 October 2015
Malachite green (MG) is a triphenyl methane cationic dye which is used to color fabrics and is employed as food additive, food coloring agent and medical disinfectant. MG is found to be toxic to aquatic organisms, animals including humans. Copper is a commonly found metal in environment due to anthropogenic activities. Most of the microorganisms show sensitivity toward it. This adversely affects their growth and activity. In the present study, biodegradation of MG by a copper-tolerant bacterium has been investigated. Biodegradation was confirmed by UV–Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The metabolites generated after degradation of MG were identified by LC/MS and a plausible pathway of MG degradation has been elucidated. Microbial and phyto toxicity of generated metabolites were also evaluated.
A strain belonging to Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense strain GGUPV1 was discovered from copper mine waste water. This bacterium could tolerate as high as 50 mM copper sulfate in minimal medium. It was observed that this bacterium could degrade 400 mg/L of MG in minimal medium. Decolorization of MG was also observed in presence of copper sulfate in the medium. Degradation of MG was confirmed by UV–Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. GC/MS study indicated that metabolites generated after degradation of MG were nontoxic to Staphylococcus aureus.
This is the first report showing degradation of MG by Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense. This strain can be successfully employed for degradation of MG.
Ever-increasing demand for colored products has lead to widespread use of dyestuffs (Daneshwar et al. 2007). Various industries discharge effluents containing unused dyes directly into the water bodies causing serious threat to the environment (Zollinger 1987). In an estimate, textile dyeing effluents discharge approximately 280,000 tons of dyes worldwide every year (Jin et al. 2007). Most of the dyes are stable and thus recalcitrant to biodegradation (Robinson et al. 2001). These dyes exhibit potential toxicity to human and animals. Hence, treatment of dyeing wastewater is of utmost importance before its safe discharging into environment (Hazrat 2010). A large number of physiochemical methods are available for treatment of dye wastewater but these methods posses a constraint due to their limited versatility, high cost, low efficiency and interference by other wastewater constituents (Banat et al. 1996). These physiochemical methods also produce a lot of sludge posing a threat as secondary pollutant (Du et al. 2011). However, biological methods are available which are eco-friendly and completely mineralize organic pollutant (Pandey et al. 2007). These methods are inexpensive, have wide range applicability, low running cost, complete mineralization of dye to a nontoxic compound and eco-friendly (Forgacs et al. 2004). Malachite green (MG) is a water-soluble triphenylmethane cationic dye which is used to color fabrics (Zhou et al. 2015). It is also utilized in food and medical industry (Chowdhury et al. 2011). Apart from its toxicity on aquatic and terrestrial animals, it also elicits cytotoxicity on mammalian cell and causes formation of liver tumors (Srivastava et al. 2004). Due to its ill effects, it has been banned in many countries, but in some developing countries including India, it is still being used (Hameed and El-Khaiary 2008). Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop efficient and effective method which can treat MG dye from wastewater up to an extent which is nontoxic and can be easily disposed off to the environment in an eco-friendly way.
Recent thrust in the field of bioremediation is the use of multifaceted microorganisms. These organisms perform different roles in the environment viz. apart from biodegradation, they may exhibit plant growth-promoting activities, they may degrade multiple pollutants, or they show resistance toward toxic metals (Chaturvedi et al. 2013). Copper is one of the metals, which is normally found in high amounts in water bodies due to anthropogenic activities (Giller et al. 1998). Most of the microorganisms are susceptible to high doses of copper. Thus, presence of copper in water systems severely affects growth of microorganisms, leading to a loss in their biodegradation capabilities (De La Iglesia et al. 2006). In the present investigation, a copper-tolerant bacterial strain was discovered from copper mine waste water by employing enrichment technique. Potential of the isolate to degrade MG in presence and absence of copper ions was evaluated.
Microorganisms and culture conditions
Water samples were collected from the copper mines located at Balaghat, Malanjkhand Madhya Pradesh, India. It is an open-pit-type mine owned by Hindustan Copper limited. Geographical coordinates of Balaghat are 21° 47′ 23.5248″ north, 80° 47′ 28.3344″ east. Bacteria were isolated by enrichment technique. 5 mL of water sample was inoculated into 50 mL BSMY1 (Aksornchu et al. 2008) containing 5 mM CuSO4 and incubated at 30 °C temperatures on rotary shaker at 120 rpm for 3 days. Fresh grown 1 mL of culture was transferred into BSMY1 medium containing 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mM CuSO4 in different flasks. Finally, 0.1 mL of fresh culture growing in 50 mM CuSO4 was spread on BSMY1 agar containing 50 mM CuSO4 and incubated at 30 °C for 3 days. The most tolerant bacterial colony was observed and then they were used to further obtain the pure culture. Bacteria were isolated that could tolerate the highest CuSO4 concentration. For identification, the selected strain was sent to Chromas Biotech Pvt. Ltd, for 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The sequencing of rDNA was performed on payment basis. The sequence was matched against nucleotide sequences present in Gen Bank at NCBI database using BLASTn program. The nucleotide sequences showing similarity to the sequence of strain GGUPV1 were retrieved and a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was created using phylogeny.fr program (Dereeper et al. 2008).
BSMY1 medium contained the following (g/L); yeast extract–1, (NH4)2SO4—0.3, MgSO4·7H2O—0.14, CaCl2·2H2O—0.2, NaCl—0.1, KH2PO4—0.05, K2HPO4—0.05, H3BO3—0.6, CoCl2·6H2O—0.17, CuCl2·2H2O—0.09, MnCl2—0.1, ZnCl2—0.22, glucose—1.0 pH-7.5
Decolorization of MG
MG decoloriza’tion experiments 2.5 % (containing approximately 1 × 108 CFU/mL) inoculum was transferred under sterile conditions to 50 mL BSMY1 medium taken in a 150-mL erlenmeyer flask supplemented with varying concentration of MG (50–400 mg/L). The flasks were incubated in static conditions at 30 °C for 96 h. A comparative study was also performed under shaking conditions at 120 rpm under similar conditions. Flasks containing 50 mL BSMY1 medium supplemented with 50–400 mg/L MG, without inoculum were designated as control and were kept under identical conditions. After incubation of 24 h, 10 mL culture was retrieved and centrifuged at 8000 rpm for 10 min to remove bacterial cells. Decolorization was analyzed in a UV–Vis spectrophotometer by taking absorbance at 620 nm (Parshetti et al. 2006). Percent decolorization was calculated according to Ayed et al. (2009). To study the effect of different concentrations of Cu2+ ions on decolorization of MG, 10 and 20 mM CuSO4 was supplemented to 50 mL BSMY1 medium containing 50 and 100 mg/L MG. The decolorization experiment was performed as stated above.
UV–Vis spectral and FTIR analysis
Decolorization of MG was studied in UV–Vis spectroscopic analysis using Shimadzu UV–Vis spectrophotometer (UV-1800), the spectrum of MG (50 mg/L) and its degraded metabolites (50 mg/L) arising after 8 h of incubation was recorded in the range of 200–1000 nm (Chaturvedi et al. 2013). Biodegradation of MG was also monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, for analysis samples were send to STIC, Cochin, Kerala, India. The analysis was carried out on payment basis (Chaturvedi et al. 2013).
The degraded metabolites arising after 24 h of incubation of strain GGUPV1 in BSMY1 medium containing MG (50 mg/L) were extracted with equal volume of ethyl acetate (Du et al. 2011). The ethyl acetate fraction was evaporated to dryness and was sent to SAIF, IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India for analysis. The analysis was performed on payment basis.
Microbial and phytotoxicity studies of MG and its degraded metabolites
Microbial toxicity of MG and its degraded metabolites was studied on Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 737. A single colony of the strain was inoculated in 10 mL LB medium and incubated at 120 rpm at 30 °C. After overnight incubation, 100 µL culture was spread on the surface of nutrient agar plate. After spreading, four sterile filter paper discs were placed at four corners of the plates. MG (50 mg/L) and its degraded metabolites were extracted with equal volume of ethyl acetate (50 mL). The ethyl acetate fraction was evaporated to dryness. The solid residues were dissolved in 500 µL Milli-Q (MQ) water. 10 and 15 µL of MG and metabolites were placed on separate paper discs. The plates were incubated in a biological oxygen demand (BOD) incubator at 30 °C and were visually inspected (Chaturvedi et al. 2013).
Phytotoxicity of MG and its degraded metabolites was accessed by estimating the germination of seeds of Vigna radiata in presence of ethyl acetate extract of MG and its degraded metabolites (after evaporation of ethyl acetate, the solid residues were suspended in 20 mL MQ water). The seeds were surface sterilized with 2 % mercuric chloride for 20 min, and were washed thrice with double distilled water. Twenty seeds were placed on the surface of sterile cotton containing 20 mL MG and its metabolites separately and all plates were incubated at 20 °C in presence of 70 % humidity. In control plates, MQ water (20 mL) was used in place of MG solution. After 7 days of incubation, seed germination percentage and radical/plumule lengths were calculated (Du et al. 2011).
Results and discussion
Isolation of copper-tolerant microorganism
Decolorization of MG
A time course study of MG (50–400 mg/L) decolorization was performed under static conditions (Fig. 2b). It is evident that 50–200 mg/L MG was completely decolorized after 48 h of incubation, whereas 300 mg/L MG was completely decolorized after 72 h of incubation and 400 mg/L of MG was incompletely decolorized after 96 h of incubation. There are several reports of degradation of high levels of MG by bacterial strains. This strain was able to mineralize 400 mg/L of MG in minimal medium, which was higher than previous reports made by Parshetti et al. (2006) in which K. rosea could mineralize 50 mg/L of MG in semisynthetic medium. Also, a strain of Sphingomonas paucimobilis was able to decolorize 50 mg/L of MG in minimal medium (Ayed et al. 2009). Decolorization of MG was also studied in presence of 10 and 20 mM CuSO4 after 24 h of incubation (Fig. 2c). This concentration was selected because reduction in bacterial growth was less as compared to higher concentrations. It was observed that in presence of copper ions, significant reduction in decolorization of MG took place. The reduction of decolorization was more prominent at 20 mM concentration as compared to 10 mM. The apparent reason for this observation could be toxicity of CuSO4 to bacterial cells. Similar result was also reported by Du et al. (2011) in Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 in which pronounced reduction in MG decolorization was observed in presence of Cu2+ ions.
UV–Vis and FTIR analysis
The degraded metabolites showed characteristic peak at 3431 cm−1 corresponding to C55O overtone, 1654 cm−1 for aromatic ketones, and 1458 cm−1 for aromatic group. Reduction of peaks at 714, 937, and 1514 cm−1 indicated loss of aromaticity of metabolites (Fig. 4b). These results are in accordance with previous reports of Chaturvedi et al. (2013), Ayed et al. (2009), and Kalyani et al. (2009), and confirming degradation of MG by strain.
Microbial and phytotoxicity of MG and its degraded metabolites
The toxicity of MG and its degradation products are major environmental concern. Microbial toxicity was studied by employing the conventional plate assay technique in the bacterium S. aureus MTCC 737. The results clearly showed that in the presence of MG (5 and 10 µL), inhibitory zones were formed indicating toxicity of MG to the bacterium. When the bacterium was grown in presence of ethyl acetate extract of degraded metabolites (5 and 10 µL), no zone of inhibition was observed. It indicated nontoxic nature of degraded metabolites to the bacterium. Similar results have also been reported by Chaturvedi et al. (2013), Ayed et al. (2009), which prove that the metabolites produced after degradation of MG are less toxic to microorganisms.
Phytotoxicity study of malachite green (MG) and its degradation product
Control (distilled water)
Control with malachite green (MG)
Metabolites generated after degradation with the strain GGUPV1
86 ± 1.53
40 ± 0.57
70 ± 0.57
Shoot length (cm)
8.93 ± 0.152
6.53 ± 0.412
7.03 ± 0.152
Root length (cm)
5.23 ± 0.30
2.6 ± 0.40
4.13 ± 0.321
In the present study, a copper-tolerant bacterium identified as Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense strain GGUPV1 was discovered from copper mine waste water. This strain was able to degrade 400 mg/L MG in minimal medium. This bacterium was also able to decolorize 100 mg/L MG in presence of 10 and 20 mM CuSO4. Biodegradation was confirmed by UV–Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. GC/MS analysis led to propose a pathway of MG degradation operative in this bacterium, which involved formation of metabolites such as methanone, [4-(dimethyl amino) pheny]phenyl (m/z 148) and phenol, 3-(demethylamino) (m/z 136). Further, the degraded metabolites were nontoxic to S. aureus MTCC 737 and V. radiata.
VC carried out the isolation of bacterium, and degradation, microbial and phytotoxicity experiments. PV designed the whole study and prepared the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
PV is thankful to DBT for providing the financial support (Grant No. BT/304/NE/TBP/2012).
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Aksornchu P, Prasertsan P, Sobhon V (2008) Isolation of arsenic-tolerant bacteria from arsenic-contaminated soil. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 30(Suppl. 1):95–102Google Scholar
- Anand P, Isar J, Saran S, Saxena RK (2006) Bioaccumulation of copper by Trichoderma viride. Bioresour Technol 97:1018–1025View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ayed L, Chaieb K, Cheref A (2009) Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dye malachite green by Spingomonas paucimobilis. World J Microbial Biotechnol 25:705–711View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Banat IM, Nigam P, McMullan G, Marchant R, Singh D (1996) Microbial decolorization of textile dye containing effluents: a review. Bioresour Technol 58:217–227View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chaturvedi V, Bhange K, Bhatt R, Verma P (2013) Biodetoxification of high amounts of malachite green by a multifunctional strain of Pseudomonas mendocina and its ability of metabolize dye adsorbed chicken feathers. J Env Chem Eng 1:1205–1213View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chowdhury S, Mishra R, Saha P, Kushwaha P (2011) Adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics and isosteric heat of adsorption of malachite green onto chemically modified rice husk. Desalination 265:159–168View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Daneshwar N, Ayazloo M, Khataee AR, Pourhassan M (2007) Biological decolourization of dye solution containing malachite green by microalgae Cosmarium sp. Bioresour Technol 98(6):1176–1182View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- De La Iglesia R, Castro D, Ginocchio R, Van Der Lelie D, Gonzalez B (2006) Factors influencing the composition of bacterial communities found at abandoned copper-tailings dumps. J Appl Microbiol 100:537–544View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dereeper A, Guignon V, Blanc G, Audic S, Buffet S, Chevenet F, Dufayard JF, Guindon S, Lefort V, Lescot M, Claverie JM, Gascuel O (2008) Phylogeny.fr: robust phylogenetic analysis for the non-specialist. Nucleic Acids Res 1:36Google Scholar
- Du LN, Wang S, Li G, Wang B, Jia XM, Zhao YH, Chen YL (2011) Biodegradation of malachite green by Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 under aerobic condition: characteristics, degradation products, enzyme analysis and phytotoxicity. Ecotoxicology 20(2):438–446View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Forgacs E, Cserhati T, Oros G (2004) Removal of synthetic dyes from wastewaters: a review. Env Int 30:953–971View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Giller K, Witter E, McGrath SP (1998) Toxicity of heavy metals to microorganisms and microbial processes in agricultural soils: a review. Soil Biol Biochem 30:1389–1414View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hameed BH, El-Khaiary MI (2008) Malachite green adsorption by rattan sawdust: isotherm, kinetic and mechanism modeling. J Hazard Mater 154:237–244View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hazrat A (2010) Biodegradation of synthetic dyes: a review. Water Air Soil Pollut 213:251–273View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jin X, Liu G, Xu Z, Yao W (2007) Decolorization of a dye industry effluent by Aspergillus fumigatus XC6. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 74:239–243View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kalyani DC, Telke AA, Dhanve RS, Jadhav JP (2009) Ecofriendly biodegradation and detoxification of reactive red 2 textile dye by newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. SUK1. J Hazard Mater 163(2):735–742View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pandey A, Singh P, Iyengar L (2007) Bacterial decolorization and degradation of azo dyes. Int Biodeter Biodeg 59(2):73–84View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Parshetti G, Kalme S, Saratale G, Govinndwar S (2006) Biodegradation of malachite green by Kocuria rosea MTCC 1532. Acta Chim Slov 53:492–498Google Scholar
- Robinson T, McMullan G, Marchant R, Nigam P (2001) Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative. Bioresour Technol 77:247–255View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Srivastava S, Sinha R, Roy D (2004) Toxicological effects of malachite green. Aquat Toxicol 66:319–329View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhou Y, Min Y, Qiao H, Huang Q, Wang E, Ma T (2015) Improved removal of malachite green from aqueous solution using chemically modified cellulose by anhydride. Int J Biol Macromol 74:271–277View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zollinger H (1987) Synthesis, properties and applications of organic dyes and pigments. Color chemistry. VCH Publisher, New York, pp 92–102Google Scholar