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Table 2 Comparison of different green extraction techniques along with their examples

From: Valorization of fruits and vegetables waste through green extraction of bioactive compounds and their nanoemulsions-based delivery system

SummaryExamplesReferences
Bioactive compoundsSourceSolvent/enzymeYield
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)
Generally, CO2 is used
Conducted under room temperature and at high pressure
Environment friendly
Time-saving process
Recycle and reuse of the supercritical fluid
LycopeneTomato wasteLiquid CO2729.98 mg/kgKehili et al. (2017)
Total phenolic contentOrange pomace (dry)Pure ethanol
Ethanol/water (9:1)
21.2 GAE/g of extract
20.7 GAE/g of extract
Espinosa-Pardo et al. (2017)
Polyphenol contentSeed fraction 7.7 mgGAE/gManna et al. (2015)
Skin fraction
(Grape pomace)
11.9 mgGAE/g
Pulsed electric field
Less time-consuming
Conducted under room temperature or heat and at atmospheric pressure
Water, aqueous and non-aqueous solvents along with moderate quantity
Reduction in energy cost
AnthocyaninGrape by-productsWater and ethanol14.05 mg Cy-3-glu eq./g dry matterCorrales et al. (2008)
Total phenolic
Total anthocyanin content
Blueberry press cake50% ethanol and 0.5
HCl
+63%
+78%
Bobinaitė et al. (2015)
Boussetta et al. (2012)
PolyphenolsGrape seedsEthanol9 g/100 g GAE 
Microwave-assisted extraction
Cost-effective technique
Water, aqueous and non-aqueous solvents along with moderate quantity or none
High yield and short extraction time
Operated under room temperature and at atmospheric pressure
Total phenolicRed grape pomaceWater52,645 ppm GAE in dry extractDrosou et al. (2015)
Total phenolic contentC. sinensis peelsAcetone in water (20–80%)12.09 mgGAE/g DWNayak et al. (2015)
Total carotenoid yieldGac peelsEthyl acetate262.3 ± 3.5 mg/100 g DWChuyen et al. (2017)
Ultrasound-assisted extraction
Reduction in the time, energy and power usage
Conducted under room temperature or heat and at atmospheric pressure
Water, aqueous and non-aqueous solvents along with moderate quantity
Higher yield
Use of renewable plant resources
Quick return of investment
Safety and security
Reduction of unit operations
Carotenoids (all-trans-lycopene, β-carotene)Tomato pomaceHexane and ethanol7.49 to 14.08 mg/100 g dwLuengo et al. (2014)
Total phenolicRed grape pomaceWater50,959 ppm GAE in dry extractDrosou et al. (2015)
Naringin (Flavonoid)Grapefruits solid wasteEthanol24–36 mg/g dwGarcia-Castello et al. (2015)
Phenols, antioxidant, anthocyaninsGrape seedsEthanol5.41 mg GAE/100 ml
2.29 mg/ml
Ghafoor et al. (2009)
Natural colourPomegranate rindsWater20%Sivakumar et al. (2011)
Enzyme-assisted extraction
High rate of extraction
Used water as solvent (Eco-friendly)
High cost of enzyme for large volume of samples
Unsuitable for heat-labile compounds
CarotenoidsPumpkinPectinex UltraSP®2 mg/100 gGhosh and Biswas (2015)
AnthocyaninsCrocus sativusPectinex®6.7 mg/gLotfi et al. (2015)
CarotenoidCapsicum annuumViscozyme L®, cellulose and pectinase41.72–279.83 mg/100 gNath et al. (2016)